4713 Steel

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4713 Steel
Discovery [1]
Discovered by R. H. McNaught
Discovery site Siding Spring Obs.
Discovery date 26 August 1989
Designations
MPC designation 4713 Steel
Named after
Duncan Steel
(astronomer)[2]
1989 QL
main-belt (inner) · Hungaria[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 31 July 2016 (JD 2457600.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 39.80 yr (14,537 days)
Aphelion 2.0683 AU
Perihelion 1.7848 AU
1.9265 AU
Eccentricity 0.0736
2.67 yr (977 days)
88.920°
0° 22m 6.96s / day
Inclination 22.669°
101.44°
152.55°
Earth MOID 0.7785 AU
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 5.62±0.53 km[4]
6.248±0.011 km[5]
6.286±0.055 km[6]
7.51 km (calculated)[3]
5.186±0.004 h[7]
5.193±0.002 h[8]
5.199±0.002 h[9]
5.203±0.002 h[10]
0.18 (assumed)[3]
0.3468±0.0386[5]
0.381±0.036[6]
0.424±0.082[4]
SMASS = A[1] · A[3]
12.8[4][5]
13.1[1][3]
13.18±0.25[11]

4713 Steel, provisional designation 1989 QL, is a rare-type Hungaria asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 6 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 26 August 1989, by Scottish–Australian astronomer Robert McNaught at the Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia.[12]

The rare and reddish A-type asteroid is a member of the Hungaria family, which form the innermost dense concentration of asteroids in the Solar System. It orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.8–2.1 AU once every 2 years and 8 months (977 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.07 and an inclination of 23° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The first precovery was taken at the discovering observatory in 1976, extending the asteroid's observation arc by 13 years prior to its discovery.[12]

In May 2005, the first rotational light-curve was obtained for this asteroid from photometric observations made by French amateur astronomer Laurent Bernasconi. It gave a rotation period of 5.186±0.004 hours with a brightness variation of 0.44 magnitude (U=3).[7] Between May 2010 and December 2014, American astronomer Brian D. Warner obtained another 3 well-defined light-curves at the U.S. Palmer Divide Station, Colorado. They gave a slightly longer period of 5.193–5.203 hours with an amplitude of 0.28 to 0.42 magnitude (U=3/3/3).[8][9][10]

According to the survey carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite, the asteroid measures 5.6 kilometers in diameter and its surface has a high albedo of 0.424,[4] while NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission determined a diameter of 6.2 and 6.3 kilometers with an albedo of 0.347 and 0.381, respectively.[5][6] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a much lower albedo of 0.18 and calculates a larger diameter of 7.5 kilometers, based on an absolute magnitude of 13.1.[3]

The minor planet was named for English-born New Zealander Duncan Steel (b. 1955), astronomer and discoverer of minor planets, whose research focuses on small Solar System bodies, such as the dynamics of asteroids, comets and meteoroids, and on meteoric impact rates. He has also demonstrated that various asteroids of the Apollo group are the parents of meteor showers.[2] Naming citation was published on 30 March 1991 (M.P.C. 17982).[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 4713 Steel (1989 QL)" (2016-08-12 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (4713) Steel. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 406. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (4713) Steel". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey" (PDF). Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407free to read. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645free to read. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (4713) Steel". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (April 2012). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: 2011 September - December". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 39 (2): 69–80. Bibcode:2012MPBu...39...69W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (October 2010). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: 2010 March - June". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 37 (4): 161–165. Bibcode:2010MPBu...37..161W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  10. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (April 2015). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2014 October-December". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 42 (2): 108–114. Bibcode:2015MPBu...42..108W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  11. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762free to read. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  12. ^ a b "4713 Steel (1989 QL)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  13. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 

External links[edit]