777 Gutemberga

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777 Gutemberga
Discovery [1]
Discovered byF. Kaiser
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date24 January 1914
(777) Gutemberga
Named after
Johannes Gutenberg
(German inventor)[2]
A914 BF · 1926 EF
A924 YB · 1914 TZ
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 31 May 2020 (JD 2459000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc105.60 yr (38,570 d)
Aphelion3.5831 AU
Perihelion2.8745 AU
3.2288 AU
5.80 yr (2,119 d)
0° 10m 11.64s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions66.0 km × 66.0 km
Mean diameter
  • 65.37±1.03 km[7]
  • 65.57±1.9 km[8]
  • 71.749±0.095 km[9]
12.838±0.006 h[10]
  • 0.042±0.006[9]
  • 0.0494±0.003[8]
  • 0.050±0.002[7]

777 Gutemberga (prov. designation: A914 BF or 1914 TZ) is a dark and large background asteroid, approximately 66 kilometers (41 miles) in diameter, from the outer regions of the asteroid belt. It was discovered by German astronomer Franz Kaiser at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory on 24 January 1914.[1] The carbonaceous C-type asteroid (Cb) has a rotation period of 12.8 hours. It was named after Johannes Gutenberg (ca. 1400–1468), who introduced the printing press to Europe and started the Printing Revolution.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Gutemberga is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population when applying the hierarchical clustering method to its proper orbital elements.[4][5][6] It orbits the Sun in the outer asteroid belt at a distance of 2.9–3.6 AU once every 5 years and 10 months (2,119 days; semi-major axis of 3.23 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.11 and an inclination of 13° with respect to the ecliptic.[3] The body's observation arc begins at Heidelberg on 22 December 1924, almost 11 years after its official discovery observation.[1]


This minor planet was named after Johannes Gutenberg (ca. 1400–1468), a German inventor who started the Printing Revolution with the introduction of mechanical movable type printing. Gutenberg lived and died in Mainz and the neighboring Eltville am Rhein. The naming was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 78).[2] The crater Gutenberg on the Moon and the feature Rimae Gutenberg, a 223-kilometer long groove near the crater, were also named after him.[13][14]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the Tholen-like taxonomy of the Small Solar System Objects Spectroscopic Survey (S3OS2), Gutemberga is a common, carbonaceous C-type asteroid. In the Bus–Binzel SMASS-like taxonomic variant of the S3OS2, it is a Cb-subtype, which transitions from the C-type to the somewhat brighter B-type asteroid.[5][11]

Rotation period[edit]

In January 218, a rotational lightcurve of Gutemberga was obtained from photometric observations by Tom Polakis at the Command Module Observatory (V02) in Arizona. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 12.838±0.006 hours with a brightness variation of 0.28±0.02 magnitude (U=3).[10]

The result supersedes observations by Otmar Nickel of Astronomical Consortium of Mainz from February 2001, which gave a period of 12.88 hours with an amplitude of 0.25 magnitude (U=2),[a] and observations by Astronomers at the Palomar Transient Factory in California, with a period of 12.849±0.0081 hours and an amplitude of 0.15 magnitude.(U=2).[12][15]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Gutemberga measures (65.37±1.03), (65.57±1.9) and (71.749±0.095) kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of (0.050±0.002), (0.0494±0.003) and (0.042±0.006), respectively.[7][8][9][16]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0494 and a diameter of 65.57 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 9.8.[12] Alternative mean-diameter measurements published by the WISE team include (67.67±1.16 km) and (78.646±0.737 km) with corresponding albedos of (0.051±0.009) and (0.0343±0.0029).[5][12] On 27 June 2008, an asteroid occultation of Gutemberga gave a best-fit ellipse dimension of (66.0 km × 66.0 km), with a poor quality rating of 1. These timed observations are taken when the asteroid passes in front of a distant star.[5]


  1. ^ Lightcurve of (777) Gutemberga, taken by Otmar Nickel of the Astronomische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Mainz e. V. in 2011 (AAG Mainz). Rotation period 12.88 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.25 mag. Quality code is 2. Summary figures for at the LCDB.


  1. ^ a b c d "777 Gutemberga (A914 BF)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(777) Gutemberga". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 73. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_778. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 777 Gutemberga (A914 BF)" (2019-08-31 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Asteroid 777 Gutemberga – Proper Elements". AstDyS-2, Asteroids – Dynamic Site. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Asteroid 777 Gutemberga". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  6. ^ a b Zappalà, V.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Cellino, A.; Farinella, P.; Froeschle, C. (1997). "Asteroid Dynamical Families". NASA Planetary Data System: EAR-A-5-DDR-FAMILY-V4.1. Retrieved 2 April 2020. (PDS main page)
  7. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  8. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; Kramer, E. A.; Masiero, J. R.; et al. (June 2016). "NEOWISE Diameters and Albedos V1.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2016PDSS..247.....M. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  10. ^ a b Polakis, Tom (July 2018). "Lightcurve Analysis for Eleven Main-belt Asteroids" (PDF). Minor Planet Bulletin. 45 (3): 269–273. Bibcode:2018MPBu...45..269P. ISSN 1052-8091.
  11. ^ a b c Lazzaro, D.; Angeli, C. A.; Carvano, J. M.; Mothé-Diniz, T.; Duffard, R.; Florczak, M. (November 2004). "S3OS2: the visible spectroscopic survey of 820 asteroids" (PDF). Icarus. 172 (1): 179–220. Bibcode:2004Icar..172..179L. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.06.006. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  12. ^ a b c d "LCDB Data for (777) Gutemberga". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  13. ^ "Lunar crater Gutemberg". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology Research Program.
  14. ^ "Rimae Gutenberg". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology Research Program.
  15. ^ Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75.
  16. ^ Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121.

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