9th (Secunderabad) Cavalry Brigade
|Secunderabad Cavalry Brigade
9th (Secunderabad) Cavalry Brigade
|Active||17 September 1907 – March 1918|
|Branch||British Indian Army|
|Part of||9th (Secunderabad) Division
1st Indian Cavalry Division
2nd Indian Cavalry Division
|Br.-Gen. M.F. Rimington
Br.-Gen. C.L. Gregory
The Secunderabad Cavalry Brigade was a cavalry brigade of the British Indian Army formed in 1907 as a result of the Kitchener Reforms. It was mobilized as 9th (Secunderabad) Cavalry Brigade at the outbreak of the First World War and departed for France. It served on the Western Front as part of the 1st and 2nd Indian Cavalry Divisions until it was broken up in March 1918.
The Kitchener Reforms, carried out during Lord Kitchener's tenure as Commander-in-Chief, India (1902–09), completed the unification of the three former Presidency armies, the Punjab Frontier Force, the Hyderabad Contingent and other local forces into one Indian Army. Kitchener identified the Indian Army's main task as the defence of the North-West Frontier against foreign aggression (particularly Russian expansion into Afghanistan) with internal security relegated to a secondary role. The Army was organized into divisions and brigades that would act as field formations but also included internal security troops.
- 9th (Secunderabad) Cavalry Brigade
At the outbreak of the First World War, the Secunderabad Cavalry Brigade was still part of the 9th (Secunderabad) Division. It was mobilized in August 1914 as the 9th (Secunderabad) Cavalry Brigade with the first elements of Indian Expeditionary Force A. It was composed of one British (7th (Princess Royal's) Dragoon Guards) and two Indian (20th Deccan Horse and 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse) cavalry regiments; it sailed with N Battery, Royal Horse Artillery, Secunderabad Cavalry Brigade Field Ambulance, H Section Ammunition Column and 1st Field Troop, 1st King George's Own Sappers and Miners.
It paused briefly in Egypt before arriving in France on 12 October 1914 where it was attached to the Indian Corps and then to the 1st Indian Cavalry Division in November. At this time, just the 3rd (Ambala) Cavalry Brigade had reached the Front: the other two brigades of the division – 2nd (Sialkot) and 8th (Lucknow) – had been held up after arrival in France by horse sickness and did not reach the Front until 8 – 10 December. While in France, the brigade was known by its geographical rather than numerical designation so as to avoid confusion with the British 9th Cavalry Brigade also serving on the Western Front at the same time.
Among the brigade's engagements in 1914 were the Battle of La Bassée, the Battle of Armentières and the Battle of Givenchy. On 24 November, Lieutenant Frank de Pass of the 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse won the Victoria Cross at Festubert.
In 1916, the brigade took part in the Battle of the Somme, notably the Battle of Bazentin (14 – 17 July) and the Battle of Flers–Courcelette (15 – 22 September). In 1917, the brigade took part in the Battle of Cambrai, notably the Tank Attack (20 – 21 November) and the German Counter-attacks (30 November – 3 December). At other times it was held in reserve in case of a breakthrough, although it did send parties to the trenches on a number of occasions. They would hold the line, or act as Pioneers; such parties were designated as the Secunderabad Battalion.
In March 1918, the brigade was broken up in France. The British units (7th (Princess Royal's) Dragoon Guards and N Battery, Royal Horse Artillery) remained in France and the Indian elements were sent to Egypt. On 24 April 1918, these were merged with the 7th Mounted Brigade and joined the new 2nd Mounted Division. On 22 July 1918 the 7th Mounted Brigade was redesignated as 14th Cavalry Brigade and the division as 5th Cavalry Division.
Orders of battle
|In India in August 1914|
|At the outbreak of the First World War, the brigade had the following composition:|
|The brigade's composition on the Western Front included:
|17 September 1907||Brigadier-General||M.F. Rimington|
|May 1911||Brigadier-General||E.B. Burton|
|July 1912||Brigadier-General||R. Wapshare|
|7 January 1913||Major-General||F.W.G. Wadeson|
|1 May 1916||Brigadier-General||C.L. Gregory||Brigade broken up in March 1918|
- 17 September 1907 was the appointment date of the brigade's first commanding officer.
- N Battery, Royal Horse Artillery joined from IX Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery at Secunderabad and sailed from India with the brigade. It was assigned to II Indian Brigade, Royal Horse Artillery but in practice was permanently attached to the brigade.
- 13th Machine Gun Squadron was formed on 29 February 1916 by combining the machine gun sections of the 7th (Princess Royal's) Dragoon Guards, 20th Deccan Horse and 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse.
- Haythornthwaite 1996, p. 244
- The late Lieutenant General H.G. Hart. "Hart's Annual Army List for 1909". London: John Murray. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- Perry 1993, p. 13
- Perry 1993, p. 16
- Perry 1993, p. 20
- "7th (The Princess Royal's) Dragoon Guards at regiments.org by T.F.Mills". Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-30.
- "The Royal Deccan Horse (9th Horse) at regiments.org by T.F.Mills". Archived from the original on 20 April 2007. Retrieved 2015-07-18.
- "The Poona Horse (17th Queen Victoria's Own Cavalry) at regiments.org by T.F.Mills". Archived from the original on 20 April 2007. Retrieved 2015-07-18.
- Gaylor 1996, p. 95
- Perry 1993, p. 19
- Becke 1936, p. 33
- Perry 1993, p. 28
- Perry 1993, p. 108
- Perry 1993, pp. 18,19
- Perry 1993, p. 18
- Baker, Chris. "Cavalry units of the Machine Gun Corps". The Long Long Trail. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
- Mackie 2015, p. 372
- Perry 1993, p. 17
- Becke, Major A.F. (1936). Order of Battle of Divisions Part 2A. The Territorial Force Mounted Divisions and the 1st-Line Territorial Force Divisions (42-56). London: His Majesty's Stationery Office. ISBN 1-871167-12-4.
- Gaylor, John (1996). Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903–1991 (2nd ed.). Tunbridge Wells: Parapress. ISBN 1-898594-41-4.
- Griffith, Paddy (1998). British Fighting Methods in the Great War. Routledge. ISBN 978-0714634951.
- Haythornthwaite, Philip J. (1996). The World War One Source Book. London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 1-85409-351-7.
- Kempton, Chris (2003b). 'Loyalty & Honour', The Indian Army September 1939 – August 1947. Part II Brigades. Milton Keynes: The Military Press. ISBN 0-85420-238-2.
- Mackie, Colin (June 2015). "Army Commands 1900-2011" (PDF). www.gulabin.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- Perry, F.W. (1993). Order of Battle of Divisions Part 5B. Indian Army Divisions. Newport: Ray Westlake Military Books. ISBN 1-871167-23-X.
- Rinaldi, Richard A (2008). Order of Battle of the British Army 1914. Ravi Rikhye. ISBN 978-0-97760728-0.
- "9th (Secunderabad) Division on The Regimental Warpath 1914 - 1918 by PB Chappell". Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 2015-07-03.
- "1st Indian Cavalry Division on The Regimental Warpath 1914 - 1918 by PB Chappell". Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 2014-07-08.
- "2nd Indian Cavalry Division on The Regimental Warpath 1914 - 1918 by PB Chappell". Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 2016-03-05.