A. P. Tureaud
Alexander Pierre Tureaud, Sr.
|Born||February 26, 1899|
|Died||January 22, 1972 (aged 72)|
|Alma mater||Howard University|
|Occupation||Attorney; Civil rights activist|
|Political party||Republican-turned-Democratic (1944)|
|Children||Including A. P. Tureaud, Jr.|
Alexander Pierre Tureaud, Sr., known as A. P. Tureaud (February 26, 1899 – January 22, 1972), was the attorney for the New Orleans chapter of the NAACP during the Civil Rights Movement. With the assistance of Thurgood Marshall and Robert Carter from the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, A. P. Tureaud filed the lawsuit that successfully ended the system of Jim Crow segregation in New Orleans. That case paved the way for integrating the first two elementary schools in the Deep South.
Louis Berry, the civil rights attorney from Alexandria and the first African American admitted to the Louisiana bar since Tureaud himself, had hoped to join Tureaud's law firm in the late 1940s, but Tureaud could not at the time afford to take on another attorney.
Jim Crow laws arose directly from a Supreme Court ruling which validated a "states' rights" notion that blacks and whites could be equally well served using separate but equal public facilities. With Plessy v. Ferguson (USSC 1896) the United States Supreme Court confirmed the right of state legislatures to enact discriminatory legislation. With this authority, civic organizations throughout the American South moved to restrict citizen access and limit citizens from exercising their civil rights based on the basis of their social and economic status, and on their personal history as descended from a former slave.
In 1954, the United States Supreme Court overturned Plessy and ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregated schools were unconstitutional and must be desegregated "with all deliberate speed." In the following years, A. P. Tureaud and the NAACP initiated the lawsuits which eventually forced the Orleans Parish School System to desegregate.
In 1956, Tureaud noted that U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower, the Republican nominee, improved considerably on his performance in African-American voting districts in Louisiana compared to 1952, when he lost the state of Louisiana. Tureaud viewed the shift—Eisenhower in victory statewide for instance jumped from 7 percent in 1952 in Baton Rouge to 71 percent—as a black protest against segregation laws passed by the Louisiana State Legislature. While some 161,000 blacks went to the polls in 1956, more than 31,000 were purged from the rolls over the next two years. Some five thousand alone were excluded in Ouachita Parish in northeastern Louisiana. 
- "Rachel L. Emanuel, History: Black Lawyersin Louisiana Prior to 1950" (PDF). lsba.org. August–September 2005. p. 108. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 12, 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- R. Bentley Anderson, Black, White, And Catholic: New Orleans Interracialism, 1947-1956, October 30, 2005. ISBN 0-8265-1483-9.
- "Board of Supervisors of Louisiana State University Agricultural and Mechanical et al, Appellants, v. Alexander P. Tureaud, Jr., a Minor, by Alexander P. Tureaud, Sr., his father, Appellee". openjurist.org. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
- Perry H. Howard, Political Tendencies in Louisiana (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1957), pp. 333-335.
- Billy Hathorn, The Republican Party in Louisiana, 1920-1980, (Natchitoches: Northwestern State University, 1980), p. 89.
- Rachel Lorraine Emanuel and Denise Barkis-Richter. Louisiana Public Broadcasting. "Journey for Justice: The A.P. Tureaud Story."
- Saint Augustine Church, Fauborg Treme, New Orleans. "Alexander Pierre Tureaud: Civil Rights Attorney (1899 – 1972)."
- New Orleans Public Library System. "Notable African Americans from Louisiana."
- Donald E. Devore and Joseph Logsdon. Crescent City Schools, July 1991. ISBN 0-940984-66-0. Chapters VI and VII.
- Wesley, Charles H. (1981) . The History of Alpha Phi Alpha, A Development in College Life. Foundation Publishers. ASIN: B000ESQ14W.
- A More Noble Cause: A. P. Tureaud and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Louisiana (A Personal Biography).