|Region of origin||England, Scotland, Ulster|
|Meaning||Adam ("red earth")|
|Variant(s)||Atkinson, Aitchison, Aicheson, and Aitcheson, Adcock, Atcock|
|Footnotes: Frequency Comparisons|
In Scotland the name is more usually rendered as Acheson, while it is more usually found rendered as Atkinson in England, where it is particularly common in the north. In Ireland the name is common only in Ulster and particularly in counties Antrim and Down. A different spelling emerged in Canada, as Atcheson. Some Atkinsons are descended from Planters, although the name was recorded in Ireland before that period.
- Archibald Acheson, 1st Viscount Gosford (1718–1790), Irish peer and politician
- Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford (1776–1849), British politician
- Sir Arthur Acheson, 5th Baronet (1688–1748), Irish politician and baronet
- Carrie Acheson (born 1934), Irish politician
- Dean Acheson (1893–1971), American statesman and lawyer
- Sir Donald Acheson (1926–2010), British physician
- Edward Goodrich Acheson (1856–1931), American chemist and inventor
- Ernest F. Acheson (1855–1917), American politician and newspaper editor
- Frank Oswald Victor Acheson (1887–1948), New Zealand land court judge
- James Acheson, British costume designer
- John Acheson (died 1998), British actor
- Kenny Acheson (born 1957), British Formula One driver
- Marcus Wilson Acheson (1828–1906), American judge
- Sir Nicholas Acheson, 4th Baronet (c. 1655–1701), Irish baronet and politician
- Earl of Gosford, a title held by the Acheson family
- Acheson Surname at Forebears
- Hanks, P. (2003). Dictionary of American Family Names: 3-Volume Set. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-19-508137-4. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- Hanks, P.; Coates, R.; McClure, P. (2016). The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland. OUP Oxford. p. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-19-252747-9. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- Bell, Robert (1990) . The Book of Ulster Surnames (Paperback). Belfast: The Blackstaff Press Limited. ISBN 0-85640-405-5.
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