Painting by van Nieulandt depicts Maurits, prince of Orange. The Walters Art Museum.
His father (Adriaen van Nieulandt the elder) was born to a family of artists of Flemish origin from Antwerp. In 1589 he moved his family to Amsterdam, probably to flee the Fall of Antwerp. This could have been because they were Protestants or simply for economic reasons, as the art market in the Northern Netherlands was doing very well at the time. His sons Adriaen Jr., Willem van Nieulandt II and Jacob van Nieulandt all became painters. Adriaen Jr. was a pupil of Pieter Isaacsz (1569–1625) and Frans Badens (1571–1618) in Amsterdam. According to Houbraken, he specialized in painting statuary and landscapes. According to Het Gulden Cabinet, he also made many scenes from the Old Testament.