Agustín Pío Barrios (also known as Agustín Barrios Mangoré and Nitsuga --Agustin spelled backwards-- Mangoré; May 5, 1885 – August 7, 1944) was a Paraguayan virtuoso classical guitarist and composer, largely regarded as one of the greatest performers and most prolific composers for the guitar. His music remained undiscovered for over three decades after his death.
It has been generally accepted that Barrios was born in San Juan Bautista de las Misiones, Paraguay. However, there is no definitive proof of this as his baptismal document found in the book of registries in the cathedral in San Juan Bautista does not state his precise place of birth. Also, several biographers and authorities present convincing documented evidence that Barrios was born, instead, in the nearby town of Villa Florida, Misiones, situated on the Tebicuary River some 30 km north of San Juan Bautista.
When he was a child, Barrios began to develop a love for music and literature, two areas that were very important to his family. Barrios would eventually speak two languages (Spanish and Guarani), and read three more (English, French and German).
Barrios began to show an interest in musical instruments, particularly the guitar, before he reached his teens. He went to Asunción in 1901, at the age of fifteen, to attend a university (Universidad Nacional de Asunción) with a scholarship in music, thus becoming one of the youngest university students in Paraguayan history. Apart from his studies in the college's music department, Barrios was also well appreciated by members of the college's mathematics, journalism and literature departments.
After leaving college, Barrios dedicated his life to music and writing poems. He composed more than 300 songs for which he would first write the lyrics and then the guitar accompaniment. Barrios made several friends during his multiple trips across South America. He was known for giving his friends and fans signed copies of his poems. Because of that, there are several different versions of his poetical works which have surfaced across South America, other areas of Latin America and the United States. Many current collectors warn potential buyers to be careful when they come across a poem reportedly autographed by Barrios.
Barrios was famed for his phenomenal performances, both live and on gramophone recordings. Barrios has been credited as the first classical guitarist to make recordings, in 1909/10, but the earliest known recording were by guitarists Luis and Simon Ramirez, onto cylinders, for the "Viuda de Aramburo" label, in Madrid, between 1897 and 1901. Barrios at times performed in concert in traditional Paraguayan dress (he was partly of Guaraní origin), using the pseudonym of Nitsuga Mangoré ('Nitsuga' being Agustín spelled backwards, and 'Mangoré' being the name of a cacique of the South American indigenous group Timbú).
His works were largely late-Romantic in character, despite his having lived well into the twentieth century. Many of them are also adaptations of, or are influenced by, South American and Central American folk music. Very many of them are of a virtuosic nature.
The Johann Sebastian Bach-inspired La Catedral, from 1921, is widely considered to be Barrios' magnum opus, even winning the approval of Andrés Segovia, who said "In 1921 in Buenos Aires, I played at the hall La Argentina noted for its good acoustics for guitar, where Barrios had concertized just weeks before me. He was presented to me by his secretary Elbio Trapani. At my invitation Barrios visited me at the hotel and played for me upon my very own guitar several of his compositions among which the one that really impressed me was a magnificent concert piece The Cathedral whose first movement is an andante, like an introduction and prelude, and a second very virtuosic piece which is ideal for the repertory of any concert guitarist. Barrios had promised to send me immediately a copy of the work (I had ten days remaining before continuing my journey) but I never received a copy." However, it equally possible that Segovia did receive the score and chose not to play it, either out of distaste for Barrios' folk-based music or professional jealousy (because Barrios was more of a composer than he was).
Later life and death
Barrios returned touring Europe in 1936 and performed in Venezuela, Haiti, Cuba, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala. He would not fulfill his dream to reach the United States, as his partner Gloria's travel visa was denied.
While in Mexico, he suffered a myocardial infarction and was strongly advised to limit touring to reduce stress. He accepted the invitation of Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez, then President of El Salvador, to move to El Salvador.
From 1939 onwards Barrios lived in San Salvador; after recovering, he accepted Hernandez Martinez appointment as Head of Classical Guitar at the National Conservatory.
The Twelve "Mangoreans"
They were known as the Twelve Mangoreans:
Luis Mario Samayoa ( -1969), Benjamín Cisneros ( -1987), Rubén Urquilla ( -1993), René Cortés-Andrino ( -1995), Mario Cardona Lazo ( -1999), Jesús Quiroa ( -2001), Jose Cándido Morales ( -2002), Julio Cortés-Andrino ( -2006), Cecilio Orellana ( -2007), Roberto Bracamontes ( -2007), Víctor Urrutia ( -2010) and Elena Valdivieso.
Jose Cándido Morales was the only to learn from Barrios as live-in student. After Barrios' death, Morales remained the gatekeeper of Barrios' legacy, technique and late works.
The folk music of Paraguay (including the polca paraguaya and vals) provided the young Barrios with his first introduction to music. In 1898, Barrios was formally introduced to the classical guitar repertoire by Gustavo Sosa Escalada. At that time, Barrios had already composed works for the guitar, and also performed pieces written by his former teacher Alias, such as La Chinita and La Perezosa. Under the influence of his new teacher, Barrios went on to perform and study the works of Tárrega, Vinas, Sor and Aguado. Sosa Escalada was so impressed with his new pupil that he convinced Barrios's parents to let him move to Asunción to continue his education. Having already surpassed the technical and performing abilities of most guitarists, Barrios began seriously to compose around 1905.
Among the folkloric influences, Barrios is known to have played such popular Paraguayan works as "Campamento Cerro León", "Londón Carapé", "Guyrá campana", "Mamá Cumandá". As an example, "Guyrá campana" is very interesting, since some of the material can be heard in parts of Barrios' recording of "Caazapá — Aire Popular Paraguayo"... Though "Guyrá campana" is traditional music, many maintain that it is very closely related to guitarist Carlos Talavera 1 (from Caazapá), whom Barrios knew. There are various versions of "Guyrá campana" (it is also known as "Pájaro campana") e.g. for Paraguayan harp (Félix Pérez Cardozo), etc.; and in some versions, the birdsong imitations can be very clearly heard.
Barrios's compositions can be divided into three basic categories: folkloric, imitative and religious. Barrios paid tribute to the music and people of his native land by composing pieces modeled after folk songs from South America and Central America. Imitating the compositional style and techniques of the Baroque and Romantic periods was another side to his craftsmanship. "La Catedral" may be viewed as Barrios' tribute to Bach. It is believed that "La Catedral" was inspired by a religious experience for Barrios; therefore, the piece may also be categorized under religion. Religious beliefs and experiences also played an important role in Barrios' compositional process. Una Limosna por el Amor de Dios (Alms for the Love of God) is another example of a religiously-inspired work. Breaking down the works of Barrios into these three categories helps the guitar enthusiast to understand Barrios's musical intent.
- Agustin Barrios The Complete Guitar Recordings 1913-1942. This 3-CD set was transferred and digitally remastered from 78rpm gramophone recording from Atlanta, Odeon, Artigas labels and some Barrios' personal home recordings.
- Augustín Barrios: Complete Music for Solo Guitar, a 6-CD-box was released by Brilliant Classics in 2010.
- Le incisioni discografiche di Agustin Barrios
Over 300 of Barrios' compositions survive. He is still revered in El Salvador, Paraguay and Latin America to this day, where he is seen as one of the greatest musicians of all time by many. John Williams, former student of Andres Segovia, said of Barrios: "As a guitarist/composer, Barrios is the best of the lot, regardless of era. His music is better formed, it's more poetic, it's more everything! And it's more of all those things in a timeless way."
Outstanding pieces in his repertoire include:
- Abrí la Puerta Mi China
- Aconquija (Aire de Quena)
- Aire de Zamba
- Aire Popular Paraguayo
- Aires Andaluces
- Aires Criollos
- Aires Mudéjares (fragment)
- Aire Sureño (fragment)
- Allegro Sinfónico
- A Mi Madre-serenata
- Armonías de América
- Bicho Feo
- Canción de la Hilandera
- Capricho Español
- Choro da Saudade
- Confesión (Confissao de Amor)
- Cueca (Danza Chilena)
- Danza en Re Menor
- Danza Guaraní
- Danza Paraguaya no.1
- Danza Paraguaya no.2 'Jha,che valle'
- Danza Paraguaya (duet version)
- Diana Guaraní
- Divagación en Imitación al Violín
- Divagaciones Criollas
- Don Perez Freire
- El Sueño de la Muñequita
- Escala y Preludio
- Estilo Uruguayo
- Estudio de Concierto No.1 in A major
- Estudio de Concierto No.2 in A major
- Estudio del Ligado in A major
- Estudio del Ligado in D minor
- Estudio en Arpegio
- Estudio en Si Menor (solo and duet)
- Estudio en Sol Menor
- Estudio Inconcluso
- Estudio No. 3
- Estudio No. 6
- Estudio Para Ambas Manos
- Estudio Vals
- Gavota al Estilo Antiguo
- Invocación a Mi Madre
- Jha, Che Valle
- Julia Florida (barcarola)
- Junto a tu Corazón
- La Bananita (tango)
- La Catedral: Preludio - Andante - Allegro
- La Samaritana
- Las Abejas
- Leyenda de España
- Leyenda Guarani
- London Carapé
- Luz Mala
- Madrigal Gavota
- Mazurka Apasionata
- Medallón Antiguo
- Minuet in A major
- Minuet in A major
- Minuet in B major
- Minuet in C major
- Minuet in C minor
- Minuet in E major
- Oración (Oración de la Tarde)
- Oración por Todos
- Pericón in F
- Pericón in G
- Preludio Op. 5, No. 1
- Preludio in E major
- Preludio in A minor
- Preludio in C major
- Preludio in C minor
- Preludio in D minor
- Preludio in E minor
- Romanza en Imitación al Violoncello (Página d¹ Album, Fuegos Fátuos)
- Sargento Cabral
- Serenata Morisca
- Tango No. 1
- Tango No. 2
- Tarantella (Recuerdos de Nápoles)
- Tua Imagem
- Una Limosna por el Amor de Dios(Also known as "El ultimo trémolo" or "El último canto")
- Un Sueño en la Floresta (Souvenir d¹un Reve)
- Vals de Primavera
- Vals Op. 8, No. 1 (Junto a tu Corazon)
- Vals Op. 8, No. 2
- Vals Op. 8, No. 3
- Vals Op. 8, No. 4
- Vals Tropical
- Variaciones sobre un Tema de Tárrega
- Variaciones sobre el Punto Guanacasteco
- Vidalita con variaciones in A minor
- Vidalita in D minor
- Villancico de Navidad
- Zapateado Caribe (trio)
He also wrote a couple of poems:
Complete works : Zen On, Editions Castelle
While in Paraguay, Barrios had access only to instruments of limited quality. However, soon after his arrival in Buenos Aires in 1910, he was exposed to, and played, the finest instruments of his time for the remainder of his career. Normally Barrios traveled with 2 guitars, and had several modified with the addition of a 20th fret. He is documented by photograph to have played the instruments of Spanish makers José Ramírez I, Enrique García, Francisco Simplicio, Domingo Esteso, Enrique Sanfeliu and Ricardo Sanchis Nacher, Brazilian maker Di Giorgio, and in print by Uruguayan maker Rodolfo Camacho.
- El Inalcanzable Agustín Barrios Mangoré (289 pages, 2007) by Carlos Salcedo Centurion. (Centro Cultural de la República, El Cabildo, ref)
- Six Silver Moonbeams: The Life and Times of Agustin Barrios Mangoré, Richard D. Stover (GSP, 210)
- Mangoré: Vida y Obra de Agustín Barrios, Sila Godoy, Luis Szarán, Editorial Don Bosco/ Ñanduti Vive. Asunción, Paraguay.
- Dos almas musicales: Agustín Pío Barrios y José del Rosario Diarte, Nicolás T. Riveros, Asunción, Paraguay
- Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project (possibly spelling errors...)
- Sila Godoy and Luis Szaran. Mangoré: vida y obra de Agustín Barrios. Editorial Don Bosco y Editorial Ñanduti, Asunción, Paraguay. 1994, pp. 40-48
- "Why did Segovia ignore the music of Agustin Barrios in his concerts?".
- es:Cementerio de Los Ilustres
- "Personalidad de Agustín Pío Barrios "Mangoré"".
- Miguel Ángel Pangrazio. "Carlos Talavera".
- Alcibiades González Delvalle. "El Guyra Campana".
- Mario Rubén Álvarez. "Guyra Campana".
- "Félix Pérez Cardozo". Breve Recordación. musicaparaguaya.org.py.
- "Violeta Rivas — Pájaro campana".
- Chanterelle Verlag, CHR102 Archived July 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Department of Music" (PDF). cwu.edu. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Agustín Barrios.|
- Agustín Pío Barrios. Archivo Paraguayo de la Música Centro Cultural de la República - El Cabildo, Asunción, Paraguay (Spanish)
- Agustín Barrios's scores and papers in the Open Music Library
- Le incisioni discografiche di Agustin Barrios, di Mario Serio (Italian)
- Barrios Agustín (Mangoré) Diccionario de la Música en el Paraguay, by Luis Szarán (Spanish)
- Pagina Cultural del Paraguay: Breve Recordación a Mangoré. Agustín Pío Barrios (www.musicaparaguaya.org.py) (Spanish)
- Agustín Barrios Mangoré: The Folkloric, Imitative, and the Religious Influence Behind His Compositions, a review essay by Johnna Jeong
- Bacón Duarte Prado; prólogo de Alberto Nogués. Agustín Barrios, un genio insular. Editorial Araverá, Asunción del Paraguay (1985) (Spanish)