Albert One

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Albert One is an artificial intelligence chatbot created by Robby Garner and designed to mimic the way humans make conversations using a multi-faceted approach in natural language programming.

Albert One
Developer(s)Robby Garner


In both 1998 and 1999, Albert One won the Loebner Prize Contest, a competition between chatterbots.[1][2][3][4]

Some parts of Albert were deployed on the internet beginning in 1995, to gather information about what kinds of things people would say to a chatterbot.[5] Another element of Albert One involved the building of a large database of human statements, and associated replies. This portion of the project was tested at the 1994-1997 Loebner Prize contests.[citation needed]

Albert was the first of Robby Garner's multifaceted bots.[6] The Albert One system was composed of several subsystems. Among those were a version of Eliza, the therapist, Elivs, another Eliza-like bot, and several other helper applications working together in a hierarchical arrangement. As a continuation of the stimulus-response library, various other database queries and assertions were tested to arrive at each of Albert's responses. Robby went on to develop networked examples of this kind of hierarchical "glue" at The Turing Hub.


  1. ^ Søren Gjellerup Christiansen "Techniques applied to pass the Turing Test" Archived 2007-09-14 at the Wayback Machine Master's Thesis
  2. ^ "Albert is top talking computer". BBC News. BBC. 28 January 1999. Archived from the original on 24 July 2004. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
  3. ^ "Computers get chattier". BBC News. BBC. 18 March 1999. Archived from the original on 14 July 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
  4. ^ "No contest". New Scientist. Reed Business Information Ltd. 30 January 1999. Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
  5. ^ L. Caputo, R. Garner, P. Nathan. "FRED, Milton and Barry: the evolution of intelligent agents for the Web", Advances in intelligent systems, 1997.
  6. ^ R. Garner "Multifaceted Conversational Systems" Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Colloquium on Conversational Systems, University of Surrey, 2005.

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