Allamanda schottii

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Allamanda schottii
Allemanda neriifolia 12.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Allamanda
Species: A. schottii
Binomial name
Allamanda schottii
Pohl
Synonyms[1]
  • Allamanda brasiliensis Schott ex Pohl nom. inval.
  • Allamanda cathartica Schrad. nom. illeg.
  • Allamanda magnifica B.S.Williams
  • Allamanda neriifolia Hook.

Allamanda schottii, commonly known as bush allamanda, is a shrub of genus Allamanda in the family Apocynaceae, which is native to Brazil. Reaching 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) in height, it bears large yellow flowers for much of the year. Grown as an ornamental plant, it has become a weed in several countries.

Taxonomy[edit]

This species was first described by Johann Baptist Emanuel Pohl, who reported it grew on the banks of the Paraíba river.[2] [3] in 1827.[4] William Hooker described a plant that he concluded had smaller deeper-yellow flowers than A. schottii in cultivation in Exeter as Allamanda neriifolia.[5] This has since been considered a synonym of A. schottii.[6] It is listed in Flora Brasiliensis by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius.

As well as bush allamanda, common names include Schott's common allamanda and oleander allamanda.[7]

Description[edit]

Unlike many members of the genus, A. schottii is a shrub rather than a vine,[8] growing to 1.5 to 3 m (5–10 ft) tall and around 2 m (6–8 ft) wide.[9] The elliptic to obovate leaves are arranged in whorls of 3–5 or are subopposite along the stem, and measure 2–14 cm long and 1.1–4 cm wide.[6] The large yellow flowers are terminal (i.e. appearing at the ends of branches),[2] and can appear year-round but predominantly in spring.[6]

The spiny fruits appear mostly in summer.[6]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Allamanda schottii is found in the south and southeast of Brazil, in the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina. Previously considered endemic to that country, it was reported from northeastern Argentina in 2013. In Brazil, it grows near or alongside bodies of water, often in wet areas, in open or closed forests.[6]

Allamanda schottii has become naturalised in Puerto Rico, the Galapagos Islands and Costa Rica.[6] It is reported to have escaped from cultivation in Australia.[10]

Ecology[edit]

fruit

The flowers are pollinated by butterflies of the genus Phoebis, while bees and wasps also visit the flowers.[6]

The stems and leaves of Allamanda schottii contain a milky sap that is an irritant.[11] The plant contains plumericin, which causes gastrointestinal irritation.[11]

Cultivation[edit]

It is hardy to zones 10–11 and tolerant of dry spells. It grows best in rich, well-drained soil and benefits from regular pruning, becoming spindly otherwise.[9]

The cultivar Allamanda "Silver dwarf discovery" is less vigorous with silvery leaves.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 12 September 2015. 
  2. ^ a b Johann Baptist Emanuel Pohl (1827–1831), Plantarum Brasiliae icones et descriptiones hactenus ineditae: Descriptiones, 1, Antonius Strauss, p. 73 
  3. ^ Johann Baptist Emanuel Pohl (1827–1831), Plantarum Brasiliae icones et descriptiones hactenus ineditae: Icones, 1, Antonius Strauss, p. 58 
  4. ^ Frans Stafleu; et al., Taxonomic Literature II (TL-2) 
  5. ^ Hooker, William Jackson (1851). "Tab. 4594: Allamanda neriifolia". Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 77. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Hurrell, Julio A.; Keller, Héctor A.; Krauczuk, Ernesto R. (2013). "Allamanda schottii (Apocynaceae): nueva cita para la Flora Argentina" (PDF). Bonplandia (in Spanish). 22 (1): 5–10. ISSN 0524-0476. 
  7. ^ Nowick, Elaine (2014). Historical Common Names of Great Plains Plants, with Scientific Names Index: Volume II: Scientific Names Index. Lulu.com. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-60962-060-8. 
  8. ^ Armitage, Allan M. (2011). Armitage's Vines and Climbers: A Gardener's Guide to the Best Vertical Plants. Timber Press. p. 22. ISBN 9781604692891. 
  9. ^ a b c Jarrett, Amanda (2003). Ornamental Tropical Shrubs. Pineapple Press Inc. p. 24. ISBN 9781561642755. 
  10. ^ Randall, R.P. (2007). The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status (PDF). CRC for Australian Weed Management Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-920932-60-2. 
  11. ^ a b Lewis S. Nelson; Richard D. Shih; Michael J. Balick (2007). Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants. New York, New York: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 71. ISBN 9780387338170. 

External links[edit]