Andrew Báthory

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Andrew Báthory
Cardinal-deacon of Sant'Adriano al Foro
Andreas Bathory, polsk biskop (1589-99), målad 1688-1703 - Skoklosters slott - 98170.tif
Prince-Bishop of Warmia
Reign 1589–1599
Predecessor Marcin Kromer
Successor Piotr Tylicki
Prince of Transylvania
Reign 1599
Predecessor Sigismund Báthory
Born 1562 or 1563
Died 3 November 1599 (aged 36–37)
Csíkszentdomokos, Principality of Transylvania
(now Sândominic, Romania)
Burial St. Michael's Catholic Cathedral, Gyulafehérvár, Principality of Transylvania)
(now Alba Iulia, Romania)
House Báthory family
Father Andrew Báthory
Mother Margaret Majláth
Religion Roman Catholic

Andrew Báthory (Hungarian: Báthory András; 1562 or 1563 – 3 November, 1599) was the Cardinal-deacon of Sant'Adriano al Foro from 1584 to 1599, Prince-Bishop of Warmia from 1589 to 1599, and Prince of Transylvania in 1599. His father was a brother of Stephen Báthory, who ruled the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1575. Andrew was the childless Stephen Báthory's favorite nephew. He went to Poland at his uncle's invitation in 1578. He studied at the Jesuit college in Pułtusk in 1578. He became canon in the Chapter of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Warmia in 1581, and provost of Monastery of Miechów in 1583.

Pope Gregory XIII appointed Andrew cardinal during his visit in Rome in 1584. A year later, Andrew was installed as coadjutor bishop of Warmia. He was again at Rome when Stephen Báthory died in 1586. Andrew was one of the candidates to succeed him in Poland and Lithuania, but Jan Zamoyski, the Chancellor of Poland, convinced him to support an other candidate, Sigismund Vasa, and only to demostrate the Báthorys' claim to the crown through nominating his minor cousin, Sigismund Báthory, Prince of Transylvania. After Sigismund Vasa was elected king in 1587, Andrew convinced his cousin's advisors to sent reinforcements to Poland to fight against Maximilian of Habsburg, who also claimed the throne. Andrew became Prince-Bishop of Warmia after the death of Bishop Marcin Kromer in 1589.

Andrew and his brother, Balthasar Báthory, came into conflict with Sigismund Báthory over the presence of Jesuits in the predominantly Protestant Transylvania in the early 1590s. Before long, Sigismund's plan to join the Holy League of Pope Clement VIII against the Ottoman Empire, gave rise to new tensions, because Andrew and Balthasar sharply opposed the plan. Sigismund executed Balthasar and confiscated Andrew's estates in 1594. After the Ottomans defeated the army of the Holye League in a series of battles, Sigismund decided to abdicate. He transferred Transylvania to the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II, in 1598, but he returned a few months later.

Sigismund and Andrew were reconciled and Sigismund renounced Transylvania in favor of Andrew in March 1599. Andrew was supported by Poland and the Ottoman Empire. Rudolph II persuaded Michael the Brave, Voivode of Wallachia, to invade Transylvania. Michael defeated Andrew's troops in the Battle of Sellenberk with the assistance of Székely commoners, to whom he had promised the restoration of their freedom. Andrew wanted to flee to Poland, but Székely rioters murdered him.

Early life[edit]

Andrew was the youngest of the four sons of Andrew Báthory and Margaret Majláth.[1][2] His father was the marshal of the court of Isabella Jagiellon and her son, John Sigismund Zápolya.[3] Isabella and John Sigismund ruled the eastern territories of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary as vassals of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.[4] The date of Andrew's birth is uncertain, because his actual age was kept secret in the early 1580s to promote his career in the Roman Catholic Church.[5] He was most probably born in late 1562 or early 1563, according to historian Ildikó Horn.[3] His father died around that time, implying that Andrew was a posthumous son.[3]

Andrew's mother married János Iffjú before the end 1563.[3] Andrew and his youngest brother, Balthasar, and their sisters, Anne and Catherine, lived for years at their stepfather's estate, Érmihályfalva (now Valea lui Mihai in Romania).[6] Both his mother and her second husband were Lutherans, but Andrew remained Roman Catholic, similarly to his father and uncles, Christopher and Stephen Báthory.[7] Christopher was Andrew's legal guardian, but his actual role in Andrew's education is uncertain.[8]

After John Sigismund died in 1571, the Diet of Transylvania elected Stephen Báthory voivode (or ruler) in 1571.[9] Stephen adopted the title of prince of Transylvania after he was elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1575.[10] The childless king decided to take charge of his nephew's education and ordered him to come to Poland in late 1578.[11] Andrew studied at the Jesuit college in Pułtusk.[2][11] His fellow-students were mainly young Protestant noblemen from Transylvania or Royal Hungary, but Polish, Lithuanian, German and Italian noblemen and commoners were also chosen to study together with him.[12] He could speak Latin, Italian, Polish and German by the end of his studies.[13]

Church career[edit]

Beginnings[edit]

A bearded middle-aged man wearing a hat
Andrew's uncle, Stephen Báthory

Andrew was the favorite nephew of Stephen Báthory who officially adopted him.[14] Giovanni Andrea Caligari, the papal nuncio (or ambassador) in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, urged the king to persuade Andrew to start a church career.[15] Altars, churches and tombs had fascinated Andrew already in his childhood, according to the Transylvanian historian, István Szamosközy.[16] However, his Protestant mother and relatives wanted to dissuade Andrew.[16] After recovering from an almost lethal pneumonia in spring 1581, Andrew accepted their advice.[17] He was especially worried about clerical celibacy, because it prevented him from fathering legitimate children.[18] He also hoped that his uncle would promote his secular career.[18] His Jesuit tutors finally persuaded him to accept his uncle's decision.[19]

Andrew was made canon in the Chapter of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Warmia on 16 September 1581.[20] The canons and the elderly bishop, Marcin Kromer, had been opposed to Andrew's appointment, but the new papal nuncio, Alberto Bolognetti, the Chancellor of Poland, Jan Zamoyski, and Stephen Báthory persuaded one of the canons to abdicate in favor of Andrew.[20] However, the canons, along with the Estates of Royal Prussia, prevented the promotion of Andrew to coadjutor bishop, saying that he was too young.[21] At the nuncio's initiative, Andrew was elected provost of Monastery of Miechów in spring 1583.[2][22]

Cardinal[edit]

Stephen Báthory sent Andrew to Rome to start negotiations about an alliance against the Ottoman Empire and to secure Andrew's creation as Cardinal.[22] Andrew and his retinue left Kraków for Italy on 10 September 1583.[23] He met Charles Borromeo, the saintly archbishop of Milan, who wrote a spiritual instruction to Andrew.[24] In Milan, Andrew also met Giovanni Botero who described him as an actual representative of Anti-Machiavellianism.[24] A Protestant retainer of Andrew, Ferenc Forgách, converted to Catholicism in the Basilica della Santa Casa in Loreto on 21 November.[25]

Andrew (whom the ambassador of Venice mentioned as the "Polish prince") entered Rome on the feast of Andrew the Apostle (30 November).[26] Five days later, Pope Gregory XIII received him and made him papal protonotary.[27] The pope who could not persuade Stephen Báthory to join an anti-Ottoman coalition failed to make Andrew cardinal.[28] At his uncle's advice, Andrew announced that he was to leave Rome.[28] The pope appointed Andrew cardinal-deacon of Sant'Adriano al Foro on 23 July 1584.[28] On this occasion, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina dedicated a motet to the Báthorys.[29] Three days later Andrew left Rome.[30]

Coadjutor bishop[edit]

Andrew returned to Poland on 20 October 1584 and settled in Miechów.[31] He rebuilt the altar in the monastery and introduced new ceremonies (including a 40-hour prayer for the king and the kingdom).[32] He was installed as coadjutor bishop at the see of the Bishopric of Warmia, Lidzbark Warmiński, in early July 1585.[33] He visited the nearby major towns, including Gdańsk and Malbork.[33]

Stephen Báthory had meanwhile decided to secure the Bishopric of Kraków for his nephew, but the Holy See did not appoint Andrew coadjutor bishop of the Kraków see, because he was still too young.[34] The king wanted to invade Russia and sent Andrew to Rome to convince Pope Sixtus V to support his plan.[35] Andrew left Poland on 22 March 1586.[36] The brothers of Samuel Zborowski, who had been executed at Stephen Báthory's order, wanted to capture and murder Andrew, but their plan failed because of a flood.[37] Andrew came to Rome on 24 July.[37] He informed the pope about Stephen Báthory's plan, asking financial support from the Holy See against Russia.[38]

Stephen Báthory died on 13 December 1586.[39] Andrew left Rome and hurried back to Poland.[40] He inherited the domains of Gyalu, Nagyenyed and Örményes in Transylvania (now Gilău, Aiud and Armeniș in Romania) from his uncle.[41] Stephen Báthory stipulated that Gyalu should serve the reestablishment of the Roman Catholic bishopric in Transylvania.[42]

Andrew, his brother, Balthasar, and their cousin, Sigismund Báthory, Prince of Transylvania, were among the sixteen candidates to the throne of Poland and Lithuania.[43] Before long, Bartosz Paprocki published a pamphlet against "the kings from Hungary", accusing Stephen Báthory of suppressing the Polish nobles.[44] Jan Zamoyski initially stood by Andrew, who was also supported by the pope and the sultan.[45] Andrew's opponents pillaged the Monastery of Miechów.[43] A group of noblemen warned Andrew to leave Poland in February 1587.[44]

After realising that the Báthorys had little chance to seize the throne, Zamoyski decided to support an other candidate, Sigismund Vasa.[46] On Zamoyski's advice, the fourteen-year-old Sigismund Báthory was officially presented as the sole candidate from the family (which demonstrated the existence of the Báthorys' claim to the throne), but Andrew cooperated with Zamoyski on behalf of Sigismund Vasa.[47] Sigismund Vasa was elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania on 19 August 1587.[48] However, his opponents proclaimed Maximilian of Habsburg the ruler of the Commonwealth.[48] Maximilian laid siege to Kraków and pillaged Miechów.[49] Andrew persuaded Sigismund Báthory's advisors to send Transylvanian reinforcements to fight against the invaders.[48] Andrew was chosen to receive Sigismund Vasa in Kraków.[50] He also attained the new king's coronation on 27 December 1587.[51] The Sejm (or general assembly) granted citizenship to both Andrew and Balthasar Báthory.[52]

István Jósika, István Bodoni and other fellow-students of Andrew became important advisors of the young Sigismund Báthory in Transylvania.[53] After the Diet of Transylvania expelled the Jesuits in December 1588,[54] Pope Sixtus V excommunicated Sigismund.[55] Andrew went to Transylvania and sent letters to Rome to achieve a reconciliation, emphasizing that the Jesuits' aggressive proselytizing policy had contributed to their unpopularity in the predominantly Protestant principality.[55]

Bishop of Warmia[edit]

After Marcin Kromer died in early March 1589, Andrew became the Prince-Bishop of Warmia and a member of the Senate of Poland.[56] He supported the introduction of the teaching of philosophy and theology in the Collegium Hosianum in Braniewo, because he wanted to develop it into a university.[57] At the request of Sigismund III Vasa, Pope Sixtus made Andrew coadjutor bishop of Piotr Myszkowski, the elderly bishop of Kraków.[58] However, the Habsburgs wanted to prevent Andrew from seizing the bishopric which was situated near Royal Hungary..[59] The new papal nuncio, Annibale di Capua (who was their supporter) convinced the king to nominate Jerzy Radziwiłł to the see after Myszkowski died on 5 April 1591.[60] Capua emphasized that Andrew had not been ordained priest.[61] Most Polish noblemen regarded the Lithuanian Radziwiłł's appointment to a Polish see unlawful, but Pope Gregory XIV confirmed the king's decision.[62]

A young man with a moustache
Andrew's cousin, Sigismund Báthory

Sigismund III's confessor and court priest, who were Jesuits, supported Radziwiłł against Andrew.[63] Thereafter Andrew urged the Holy See to send Franciscan friars to Transylvania instead of the Jesuits (who were supported by Sigismund Báthory).[64] He also suggested that the pope should make a Franciscan friar bishop of Transylvania, with a see in is Csíksomlyó (now Șumuleu Ciuc in Romania).[42] He settled Catholic priests in four villages of his estates.[42] The Holy See authorized him to set up deaneries in Transylvania, making him the actual head of the Catholic Church in the principality.[65]

Maximilian of Habsburg who still claimed Poland and Lithuania sent his envoy to Andrew, seeking Transylvanian support against Sigismund III in August 1591.[66] Andrew emphasized that being under Ottoman suzerainty, Transylvania could not openly support Maximilian, but he also promised that Sigismund Báthory would not prevent the mustering of Transylvanian soldiers to fight in Poland.[66] In the same month, Sigismund Báthory's plan to enable the Jesuits to return to Transylvania gave rise to a serious family conflict, because both Andrew and Balthasar refused to support the prince at the Diet.[67] According to contemporaneous gossips, Andrew and his two brothers decided to dethrone Sigismund, replacing him with Balthasar.[68] Pope Clement VIII sent a papal nuncio, Attilio Amalteo, to Transylvannia to mediate a reconciliation.[69][70]

The Holy See also tried to reach a compromise on the Kraków bishopric, but Jan Zamoyski who was in conflict with the king dissuaded Andrew to give up his claim in favor of Radziwiłł.[71] Andrew withheld 20,000 gulden from the royal tax of Warmia, saying that the king owned him 40,000 gulden.[71] He started negotiations with John George, Elector of Brandenburg, who promised the hand of one of his daughter to him if he accepted the protection of Brandenburg over Warmia.[72] Zamoyski, who had been reconcilated with Sigismund III, persuaded Andrew to also make peace with the king in May 1593.[73] Andrew renounced the see of Kraków in exchange for the Abbey of Czerwińsk nad Wisłą.[74]

The pope's new envoy, Alessandro Cumuleo, came to Transylvania to urge Sigismund Báthory to join the Holy League that the pope had set up against the Ottomans.[75] The prince was ready to join the alliance, but Andrew and Balthasar emphasized that Transylvania could not secede from the Ottoman Empire without the participation of Poland in the coalition.[76] Sigismund's most advisors supported their proposal, but his confessor, the Jesuit Alfonso Carillo, convinced him to continue the negotiations with the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II.[77] Carillo prevented Andrew from taking part in the negotiations in Prague.[78] Before long, Andrew left Transylvania for Poland.[78]

Sigismund Báthory's maternal uncle, Stephen Bocskai, and other commanders of the Transylvanian army persuaded the prince to get rid of those who did not support the Holy League.[79][80] Balthasar Báthory and his allies were captured and murdered in late August 1594.[79][80] Sigismund also confiscated Andrew's Transylvanian estates.[81] The Diet confirmed the prince's acts, convicting Andrew and his brother, Stephen, for treason.[82]

Andrew sent letters to the Holy See, describing his cousin as an immoral tyrant.[83] He wanted to replace Sigismund with Stephen with the assistance of the pope, England and Poland, but they received no support.[84] Pope Clement VIII invited him to Rome, but he refuted.[85] At the pope's request, Sigismund Báthory allowed Andrew's mother and Stephen's wife to move to Poland along with their children.[86] Zamoyski, who strongly opposed Sigismund Báthory's anti-Ottoman policy, supported Andrew and Stephen.[87]

Andrew changed letters with Aaron the Tyrant, Voivode of Moldavia, whom Sigismund Báthory had captured because of Aaron's attempts to make peace with Poland and the Ottoman Empire.[87] The pope's special envoy, Martio Malacrida, tried to convince Andrew to accept the post of the ambassador of Poland in Rome, but Andrew again refuted.[88] He said, his homeland would require his presence, because Sigismund's anti-Ottoman policy could not be continued for long.[88] Letters found at one of Stephen Báthory's retainers suggested that Andrew and his brother sent letters to the leaders of the Székely commoners who had risen up against Sigismund Báthory in February 1596.[89] Sigismund III of Poland summoned Andrew and Stephen before the Senate, but Pope Clement VIII intervened on the brothers' behalf.[90]

After the Ottomans defeated the armies of the Holy League in a series of battles in 1596, Transylvanian noblemen sent letters to Andrew, offering him the principality.[91][92] After realizing that neither the pope nor the Polish king would support him against Sigismund Báthory, Andrew declared that he was ready to make peace with him.[93] He returned to Warmia where he was ordained subdeacon on 4 January 1597.[93] Andrew and Stephen even announced that they would not intervene in Transylvania.[94] Their envoys also started discussions with Sigismund Báthory about the compensation for their expropriated Transylvanian estates.[95]

Sigismund Báthory opened negotiations about the transfer of Transylvania to the Habsburgs, which worried both Poland and the Ottoman Empire.[96] On 20 February 1598, Andrew offered the Bishopric of Warmia and his other Church offices in Poland in exchange for Transylvania to Sigismund.[97] However, Sigismund's envoys had already signed an agreement with Rudolph II.[96] Sigismund left Transylvania and Rudolph's commissioners took charge of the administration of the principality on 10 April.[97] Before long, Sigismund changed his mind and returned to Transylvania with the assistance of Stephen Bocskai.[98] Sigismund sent a Jesuit friar to Kraków and offered Transylvania to Andrew in November.[99] Andrew accepted the offer and left Poland in disguise, without revealing the actual purpose of his travel to Transylvania.[100] He met Sigismund in Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca in Romania) in the middle of February 1599.[100] Most contemporaries (including Szamosközy) believed that Andrew came to Transylvania to make peace with his cousin.[100]

Prince of Transylvania[edit]

Sigismund Báthory abdicated at the Diet in Medgyes (now Mediaș in Romania) on 21 March, proposing Andrew his successor.[91][101] Andrew pledged that neither he nor his brother would take vengeance of those who had voted against them in 1594.[102] The Diet elected Andrew prince on 28 March.[103][101] However, as Alfonso Carillo noted, the most influential noblemen remained opposed to him, even if they did not dare to openly raise an objection.[102]

A head of a bearded man with a wound on his forehead
Andrew's head

Before long, the children of the Transylvanian lords who had been executed in 1594 returned to Transylvania, but they were impoverished and powerless young noblemen.[102] Instead of them, Andrew was forced to choose his officials from among the Roman Catholic lords, making István Bodoni ispán (or head) of Kolozs County, Gáspár Sibrik the commander of the cavalry and promoting the career of other prominent Catholics.[104] Andrew was even unable to get rid of his opponents.[104] For instance, Gáspár Kornis remained a member of the royal council, although he had played a preeminent role in the execution of Balthasar Báthory.[104]

Andrew wanted to secure his suzerainty over the rulers of Moldavia and Wallachia.[105] He initially wanted to replace Michael the Brave, Voivode of Wallachia, with his brother, Stephen, but Michael swore fealty to him on 26 June.[103][105] Andrew's envoys signed an agreement with Ieremia Movilă, Voivode of Moldavia, about the marriage of the voivode's daughter and Andrew's half-brother, János Iffjú on 3 July.[105] Andrew also started negotiations with the Ottoman Empire, demanding the confirmation of his hereditary rule and his suzerainty over Wallachia, and refusing the payment of the tribute for six years.[106]

After the marriage of Sigismund Báthory and Maria Christierna of Habsburg (who was a niece of Rudolph II) was declared invalid in August, Andrew proposed himself to her.[107] However, Rudolph II had not acknowledged Andrew's rule in Transylvania and sent envoys to the leaders of the "Three Nations of Transylvania".[108] He also urged Stephen Bocskai and Michael the Brave to invade Transylvania.[109] Andrew summoned Stephen Bocskai to the Diet, charging him with treason.[110] However, he did not believe the reports of Michael's preparations for an invasion and he was surprised when Michael broke into Transylvania in October.[111][112] The Székely commoners joined the invaders, because Michael promised them the restoration of their freedom.[113] On 28 October, Michael routed the Transylvanian army in the Battle of Sellenberk after Andrew (who had never participated in a battle) fled from the battlefield in panic.[114][115] The Diet of Transylvania recognized Michael as Rudolph II's representative.[116]

Andrew wanted to flee to Poland, but Székely serfs captured him on a mountain near Csíkszentdomokos (now Sândominic in Romania) on 3 November.[116][117] He was striken to death with a shepherd's axe.[117] His head was cut off and taken to Michael the Brave who sent it to the pope's envoy, Germanico Malaspina.[118] A Greek artist painted the head before it was sewed on the body at Michael's order.[118] Andrew was ceremoniously buried in the St. Michael's Cathedral in Gyulafehérvár on 24 November.[118]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 16, 245.
  2. ^ a b c Szabó 2012, p. 188.
  3. ^ a b c d Horn 2002, p. 16.
  4. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 258-259.
  5. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 16-17.
  6. ^ Horn 2002, p. 18.
  7. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 18-19.
  8. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 17-18.
  9. ^ Barta 1994, p. 260.
  10. ^ Barta 1994, p. 261.
  11. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 24.
  12. ^ Horn 2002, p. 29.
  13. ^ Horn 2002, p. 33.
  14. ^ Horn 2002, p. 39.
  15. ^ Horn 2002, p. 27.
  16. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 26.
  17. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 39-40, 42.
  18. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 42.
  19. ^ Horn 2002, p. 43.
  20. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 49.
  21. ^ Horn 2002, p. 50.
  22. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 58.
  23. ^ Horn 2002, p. 64.
  24. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 66.
  25. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 68-69.
  26. ^ Horn 2002, p. 69.
  27. ^ Horn 2002, p. 70.
  28. ^ a b c Horn 2002, p. 77.
  29. ^ Granasztói 1981, p. 408.
  30. ^ Horn 2002, p. 78.
  31. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 80-81.
  32. ^ Horn 2002, p. 82.
  33. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 87.
  34. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 85-87.
  35. ^ Horn 2002, p. 88.
  36. ^ Horn 2002, p. 90.
  37. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 92.
  38. ^ Horn 2002, p. 94.
  39. ^ Granasztói 1981, p. 409.
  40. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 96-97.
  41. ^ Horn 2002, p. 121.
  42. ^ a b c Horn 2002, p. 136.
  43. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 98.
  44. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 99.
  45. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 103-104.
  46. ^ Horn 2002, p. 100.
  47. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 105-106.
  48. ^ a b c Horn 2002, p. 110.
  49. ^ Horn 2002, p. 120.
  50. ^ Horn 2002, p. 117.
  51. ^ Horn 2002, p. 118.
  52. ^ Horn 2002, p. 119.
  53. ^ Horn 2002, p. 126.
  54. ^ Barta 1994, p. 293.
  55. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 133.
  56. ^ Horn 2002, p. 140.
  57. ^ Horn 2002, p. 145.
  58. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 139, 148.
  59. ^ Horn 2002, p. 139.
  60. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 148, 150-151.
  61. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 150-151.
  62. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 151-152.
  63. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 135, 150.
  64. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 135-136.
  65. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 136, 145.
  66. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 160.
  67. ^ Horn 2002, p. 163.
  68. ^ Horn 2002, p. 166.
  69. ^ Horn 2002, p. 168.
  70. ^ Ó hAnnracháin 2015, p. 154.
  71. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 173.
  72. ^ Horn 2002, p. 175.
  73. ^ Horn 2002, p. 176.
  74. ^ Horn 2002, p. 177.
  75. ^ Horn 2002, p. 180.
  76. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 180-181.
  77. ^ Horn 2002, p. 181.
  78. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 182.
  79. ^ a b Barta 1994, p. 294.
  80. ^ a b Felezeu 2009, p. 30.
  81. ^ Horn 2002, p. 184.
  82. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 210-211.
  83. ^ Horn 2002, p. 185.
  84. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 185-186.
  85. ^ Horn 2002, p. 186.
  86. ^ Horn 2002, p. 187.
  87. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 189.
  88. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 190.
  89. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 191-192.
  90. ^ Horn 2002, p. 192.
  91. ^ a b Barta 1994, p. 295.
  92. ^ Horn 2002, p. 193.
  93. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 194.
  94. ^ Horn 2002, p. 195.
  95. ^ Horn 2002, p. 197.
  96. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 198.
  97. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 201.
  98. ^ Horn 2002, p. 204.
  99. ^ Horn 2002, p. 205.
  100. ^ a b c Horn 2002, p. 206.
  101. ^ a b Granasztói 1981, p. 419.
  102. ^ a b c Horn 2002, p. 211.
  103. ^ a b Felezeu 2009, p. 80.
  104. ^ a b c Horn 2002, p. 212.
  105. ^ a b c Horn 2002, p. 216.
  106. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 217-218.
  107. ^ Horn 2002, p. 215.
  108. ^ Horn 2002, p. 221.
  109. ^ Horn 2002, p. 227.
  110. ^ Granasztói 1981, p. 420.
  111. ^ Horn 2002, p. 229.
  112. ^ Felezeu 2009, p. 81.
  113. ^ Horn 2002, p. 230.
  114. ^ Felezeu 2009, p. 82.
  115. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 231, 233-234.
  116. ^ a b Barta 1994, p. 296.
  117. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 235.
  118. ^ a b c Horn 2002, p. 236.

Sources[edit]

  • Barta, Gábor (1994). "The Emergence of the Principality and its First Crises (1526–1606)". In Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit. History of Transylvania. Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 247–300. ISBN 963-05-6703-2. 
  • Felezeu, Călin (2009). "The International Political Background (1541–1699); The Legal Status of the Principality of Transylvania in Its Relations with the Ottoman Porte". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Nägler, Thomas; Magyari, András. The History of Transylvania, Vo. II (From 1541 to 1711). Romanian Academy, Center for Transylvanian Studies. pp. 15–73. ISBN 973-7784-04-9. 
  • Granasztói, György (1981). "A három részre szakadt ország és a török kiűzése (1557–1605)". In Benda, Kálmán; Péter, Katalin. Magyarország történeti kronológiája, II: 1526–1848 [Historical Chronology of Hungary, Volume I: 1526–1848] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 390–430. ISBN 963-05-2662-X. 
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  • Szabó, Péter Károly (2012). "Báthory András". In Gujdár, Noémi; Szatmáry, Nóra. Magyar királyok nagykönyve: Uralkodóink, kormányzóink és az erdélyi fejedelmek életének és tetteinek képes története [Encyclopedia of the Kings of Hungary: An Illustrated History of the Life and Deeds of Our Monarchs, Regents and the Princes of Transylvania] (in Hungarian). Reader's Digest. pp. 188–189. ISBN 978-963-289-214-6. 
Andrew Báthory
Born: 1562/63 Died: 3 November 1599
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Marcin Kromer
Prince-Bishop of Warmia
1589–1599
Succeeded by
Piotr Tylicki
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Sigismund Báthory
Prince of Transylvania
1599
Vacant
Title next held by
Sigismund Báthory