September 27, 1958 |
Charlottesville, Virginia, U.S.
|Fields||Politics, international affairs|
|Alma mater||Princeton University
Worcester College, Oxford
Anne-Marie Slaughter (born September 27, 1958) is the current President and CEO of the New America Foundation. She was formerly the Bert G. Kerstetter '66 University Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton University and Dean of its Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. She is an academic, foreign policy analyst, and public commentator. She served as Director of Policy Planning for the U.S. State Department from January 2009 until February 2011 under U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. She is an international lawyer and political scientist who has taught at the University of Chicago and Harvard University, and is a former president of the American Society of International Law.
- 1 Early life, family and honors
- 2 Academic career
- 3 Career at the State Department
- 4 Other policy, public, and corporate activities
- 5 Selected publications
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Early life, family and honors
Slaughter was born and raised in Charlottesville, Virginia, the daughter of a Belgian mother, Anne Marie Denise (Limbosch), and an American father, Edward Ratliff Slaughter, Jr., a lawyer. Her paternal grandfather was Edward Slaughter, a football player, athletic coach, and professor of physical education. Slaughter is married to Andrew Moravcsik, who teaches in Princeton's Department of Politics. They have two children. She was formerly known as Anne-Marie Burley.
Slaughter is a 1976 graduate of St. Anne's-Belfield School in Charlottesville, Virginia. She received her B.A. from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University in 1980, her M.Phil. in International Affairs from Oxford University in 1982, her J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1985, and her D.Phil. in International Relations from Oxford in 1992. She graduated magna cum laude from Princeton in 1980 where she majored in the Woodrow Wilson School and received a certificate in European cultural studies. She was mentored by Richard H. Ullman. She won the Daniel M. Sachs Memorial Scholarship, one of Princeton's top honors, which provides for two years of study at Worcester College, Oxford University. She received her M.Phil. and D.Phil. degrees in international relations from Oxford in 1982 and 1992, respectively, and her law degree from Harvard Law School, cum laude, in 1985. She continued at Harvard after graduation as a researcher for her academic mentor, the distinguished international lawyer Abram Chayes. She was matron of honor at Jeffrey Toobin's wedding.
Slaughter has received an honorary degree from the University of Miami in 2006, the University of Virginia's Thomas Jefferson Medal in 2007, the University of Warwick in 2013, and Tufts University in 2014; she was the Commencement speaker that year at Tufts.
Scholarship and teaching
Slaughter served on the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School from 1989–1994 and then as J. Sinclair Armstrong Professor of International, Foreign, and Comparative Law on the faculty of Harvard Law School from 1994 to 2002. She then moved to Princeton to serve as dean of the Woodrow Wilson School, the first woman to hold that position. She held that post from 2002 to 2009, when she accepted an appointment at the US State Department. During the academic year 2007–2008 Slaughter was a visiting fellow at the Shanghai Institute for International Affairs. In 2011, she returned to Princeton as a professor.
As a scholar, Slaughter has had a focus on integrating the study of international relations and international law, using international relations theory in international legal theory. In addition, she has written extensively on European Union politics, network theories of world politics, transjudicial communication, liberal theories of international law and international relations, American foreign policy, international law, and various types of policy analysis. She has published four books: International Law and International Relations (2000), A New World Order (2004), The Idea that is America: Keeping Faith with our Values in a Dangerous World (2007), The Crisis of American Foreign Policy: Wilsonianism in the Twenty-first Century (with G. John Ikenberry, Thomas J. Knock, and Tony Smith) (2008), as well as three edited volumes on international relations and international law, and over one hundred extended articles in scholarly and policy journals or books.
She has been active as a teacher of numerous doctoral students in both law and political science, as well as other graduate and undergraduate students. At Princeton University, she is currently jointly appointed in the Politics Department and the Woodrow Wilson School, where she teaches and advises PhD, Masters and undergraduate students.
During her tenure as dean of the Woodrow Wilson School, she was credited with vigorously building the faculty, research and teaching activities of the school. She expanded the school by 30%, adding scholars from history, sociology, engineering and the natural sciences, and expanded the School's Masters in Public Policy Program to include medical doctors, lawyers, and Ph.D. scientists. She was credited with rebuilding Princeton's international relations faculty, including hiring a bevy of well-respected senior scholars including Robert Keohane, Helen Milner, and G. John Ikenberry. She also retained or hired influential right-of-center scholars including Aaron Friedberg and Thomas Christensen. Slaughter was also responsible for the creation of several research centers in international political economy and national security, the joint Ph.D. program in Social Policy, the Global Fellows program and the Scholars in the Nation's Service Initiative.
In late 2005, over 100 Princeton students and faculty signed an open letter to Slaughter and Princeton president Shirley Tilghman criticizing the University in general and the Woodrow Wilson School in particular of biasing selection of invited speakers in favor of those supportive of the Bush administration. Slaughter responded to these claims by pointing to the dozens of public lectures by independent academics, journalists, and other analysts that the Wilson School hosts each academic year. Others noted that, with Bush's Republican Party controlling the Presidency and both houses of Congress, many of the most influential people in the federal government, and in the international relations apparatus in particular, were necessarily administration supporters. In 2003 the Woodrow Wilson School hosted an art exhibit titled "Ricanstructions" that opponents of the exhibit claimed was "offensive to Catholics" and desecrated Christian symbols. Slaughter defended the exhibit.
From 2002–2004, Slaughter served as president of the American Society of International Law.
Career at the State Department
On 23 January 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton announced the appointment of Slaughter as the new Director of Policy Planning under the Obama administration. Slaughter was the first woman to hold this position.
At the State Department, Slaughter was chief architect of the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review whose first iteration was released in December 2010. The QDDR provided a blueprint for elevating development as a pillar of American foreign policy and leading through civilian power. Commenting upon the skepticism that often greets such reports, and reiterating Secretary Clinton's strong desire that the QDDR become an essential part of the State Department policy process, Slaughter said: "I'm pretty sure you're thinking, 'I've heard this before,' [a big plan to change the way a government agency works] But this is different." Slaughter received the Secretary's Distinguished Service Award for exceptional leadership and professional competence, the highest honor conferred by the State Department. She also received a Meritorious Honor Award from the U.S. Agency for International Development for her outstanding contribution to development policy.
In February 2011, at the conclusion of her two-year public service leave, Slaughter returned to Princeton University. She remains a consultant for the State Department. She has written that she came "home not only because of Princeton's rules (after two years of leave, you lose your tenure), but also because of my desire to be with my family and my conclusion that juggling high-level government work with the needs of two teenage boys was not possible."
Other policy, public, and corporate activities
In the 1980s, as a student, Slaughter was part of the team headed by Professor Abram Chayes that helped the Sandinista government of Nicaragua bring suit against the United States in the International Court of Justice for violations of international law, in the case Nicaragua v. United States (1986).
Since leaving the State Department, Slaughter remains a frequent commentator on foreign policy issues to both mainstream and new media, publishing op-eds in major newspapers, magazines and blogs around the world and curating foreign policy news for over 33,000 followers on Twitter. She appears regularly on CNN, the BBC, NPR, and PBS and lectures to academic, civic, and corporate audiences. She has written a regular opinion column for Project Syndicate since January 2012. She delivers more than 60 public lectures annually. Foreign Policy magazine named her to their annual list of the Top100 Global Thinkers in 2009, 2010, and 2011.
She has served on the board of numerous non-profit organizations, including the Council of Foreign Relations, the New America Foundation, the National Endowment for Democracy. She is currently on the Advisory Board of the Center for New American Security, the Truman Project, and the bipartisan Development Council of the Center for Strategic and International Studies. She is currently a member of the Secretary of State's Foreign Policy Advisory Board. In 2006, she chaired the Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on Democracy Promotion. She previously served on the Advisory Boards of the National Security Network and the Brookings Doha Center. From 2004–2007, she served as co-director of the Princeton Project on National Security.
In the private sector, she currently serves on the corporate board of Abt Associates, a mission-driven NGO involved in research, evaluation and implementing programs in the fields of health, social and environmental policy, and international development. She has previously served on the board of the McDonald's Corporation and on the Citigroup Economic and Political Strategies Advisory Group.
On the 2003 invasion of Iraq
In 2003, Slaughter stated that the impending Iraq invasion might be viewed as "legitimate," apart from the question of whether it was illegal, if intervening countries: (a) found weapons of mass destruction, (b) were greeted as liberators, and (c) went back to the UN immediately. Slaughter subsequently concluded publicly that, according to these criteria, the invasion had been illegitimate.
On the Responsibility to Protect
|“||Membership in the United Nations is no longer a validation of sovereign status and a shield against unwanted meddling in a state’s domestic jurisdiction... Sovereignty misused, in the sense of failure to fulfill this responsibility [to protect], could become sovereignty denied.||”|
In her 2006 Levine lecture at Fordham University, Slaughter called the R2P "the most important shift in our conception of sovereignty since the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648", and founded it in the Four Freedoms speech by President Roosevelt. She referred to a speech by Kofi Annan, in which he saw that the United Nations had come to a "fork in the road" and in her words "that it was time to decide how to adapt the institution to not the world of 1945 but the world of 2005".
On Libyan intervention
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, on the situation in Libya, were adopted on 26 February and 17 March 2011, respectively. Resolution 1970 was the first case where the Security Council authorized a military intervention citing the R2P; it passed unanimously. One week after the adoption with many absentions of the latter Resolution, Slaughter wrote a strong endorsement of Western military intervention in Libya.
In this op-ed, Slaughter challenged the skeptics who questioned the NATO use of force in Libya, describing a lack of NATO as an invitation for other regional regimes to increase their repression to remain in power. She challenged the idea that value-based and interest-based arguments on intervention could be distinguished and noted the role of President Barack Obama in helping to form an international coalition, which increased the pressure on Muammar Gadhafi. She is supportive of the Libyan Transitional National Council draft constitutional charter and is relieved that comparisons with Iraq are being made, because it might prevent similar mistakes in Libya.
Clifford May on 15 October 2014 wrote a piece in which he drew a straight line between Annan and Slaughter's R2P "norm", and the failure in Libya. May noted that President Obama had cited the R2P norm as his primary justification for using military force with Libyan dictator Moammar Gadhafi, who had threatened to attack the opposition stronghold of Benghazi.
In a 11 November 2014 piece entitled What Happened to the Humanitarians Who Wanted to Save Libyans With Bombs and Drones?, Glenn Greenwald denounced her and her policies:
|“||Just three years after NATO’s military intervention in Libya ended and was widely heralded by its proponents as a resounding success, that country is in complete collapse. So widespread is violence and anarchy there that “hardly any Libyan can live a normal life,” Brown University’s Stephen Kinzer wrote in The Boston Globe last week. Last month, the Libyan Parliament, with no functioning army to protect it from well-armed militias, was forced to flee Tripoli and take refuge in a Greek car ferry. The New York Times reported in September that “the government of Libya said . . . that it had lost control of its ministries to a coalition of militias that had taken over the capital, Tripoli, in another milestone in the disintegration of the state.”||”|
On 26 February 2015, Forbes magazine published a piece which called for Washington policymakers to be held accountable for another war gone bad. Slaughter was singled out for criticism, for her statement that “it clearly can be in the U.S. and the West’s strategic interest to help social revolutions fighting for the values we espouse and proclaim.” The writer, Doug Bandow, concluded that:
|“||Libya was an artificial nation. Khadafy held it together through personal rule, not a strong state. When he died political structure vanished. Khadafy was brutally executed; revenge killings and torture were common; black African workers were blamed for the old regime and abused. Khadafy’s arsenals were looted, with weapons, including anti-aircraft missiles, flowing outward. The country split apart geographically, ethnically, ideologically, and theologically... The Obama administration’s greatest foreign policy mistake can’t be undone... When war-happy politicians... next stand before America, voters should hold these pitiful policymakers accountable for the disaster they created in Libya.||”|
On intervention in Syria
In a February 2012 op-ed for the New York Times, Slaughter wrote an affective piece that proposed the overthrow of Bashar el-Assad by means of civil disobedience because some ill-defined American interests were threatened:
|“||Foreign military intervention in Syria offers the best hope for curtailing a long, bloody and destabilizing civil war. The mantra of those opposed to intervention is “Syria is not Libya.” In fact, Syria is far more strategically located than Libya, and a lengthy civil war there would be much more dangerous to our interests. America has a major stake in helping Syria’s neighbors stop the killing.||”|
In her view, members of the Friends of Syria group should intervene, and actors like Turkey, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Jordan, were able to, and should "arm the opposition soldiers with anti-tank, countersniper and portable antiaircraft weapons. Special forces from countries like Qatar, Turkey and possibly Britain and France could offer tactical and strategic advice to the Free Syrian Army forces." Journalist Michael Hirsh was quick to support her in the National Journal, writing that "even if the U.N. Security Council remains paralyzed, the newly empowered Arab League can provide a cover of legitimacy".
On 8 June 2012, Slaughter returned to the subject of intervention in Syria, with a rebuttal of a Henry Kissinger piece, in which he argued that an intervention would imperil the foundation of world order. She used a sophistical argument that "it is not clear what shape the political process would adopt" after the removal of Assad. Slaughter imagined an intervention process that would presumably not involve widespread destruction like that which was seen in Iraq or Libya, which at the date of writing had not fully degraded to anarchy. Two situation reports appeared to support her position. Slaughter charged NATO in Libya with disobedience of UNSC 1970. She maintained that "foreign troops on the ground" of Syria would be unnecessary, and that: 
|“||These means would include the provision of intelligence and communications equipment, antitank and anti-mortar weapons, and, crucially, air support against Syrian government tanks and troops that seek to enter or overrun a zone. The provision of such support would also require the disabling of Syrian air defenses.||”|
Slaughter sought to provide arms to the rebels, calling for bold action in creating a western backed coalition that would provide provide heavy weapons to rebels that controlled safe zones which admitted foreign journalists to monitor the rebels actions. She imagined that "this type of action would force the Russian and Chinese governments to come clean about the real motives for their positions", and proceeded to charge Vladimir Putin with "crimes against humanity, indeed near-genocide... in Chechnya at the turn of the century". Slaughter admitted that the principle of sovereignty was "enshrined in the United Nations Charter", but pointed to the fact that in 2005, the doctrine of R2P had been adopted by the UN:
|“||Sovereigns bear responsibility to... their own people, to protect them from genocide, crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansing, and grave and systematic war crimes. President Obama believes in sovereignty as responsibility. Standing up for that principle will result in a world that will be more stable, prosperous and consistent with universal values — the values Americans know as life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It will be a far better world for the United States as well as for Syrians, Egyptians, Tunisians, Libyans and billions of others. But bringing it into being requires demonstrating firmly and quickly that when governments cross the line of genocide, or engage in crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansing, or grave and systematic war crimes against their own people, the world will act — with force if necessary and with the approval only of a regional organization and a majority of the members of the U.N. Security Council. Only then will murderous dictators begin to think twice.||”|
On work-family balance
Slaughter's article titled "Why Women Still Can't Have it All" appeared in the July/August 2012 issue of The Atlantic. In the first four days after publication, the piece attracted 725,000 unique readers, making it by far the most popular magazine article ever published in that magazine. In the same period, it received over 119,000 Facebook "Recommends," making it by far the most "liked" piece ever to appear in any version of the magazine. Within several days, it had been discussed in detail on the front page of The New York Times and in many other media outlets, attracting attention from around the world.
- Laurence R Helfer and Anne-Marie Slaughter, Towards a Theory of Effective Supranational Adjudication (1997) 107(2) Yale Law Journal 273.
- Anne Marie-Slaughter, “Security, Solidarity, and Sovereignty: The Grand Themes of UN Reform” 99 A.J.I.L. 619, 628 (July 2005).
- Art, Robert J, Peter Feaver, Richard Fontaine, Kristin M. Lord & Anne-Marie Slaughter (2012), America’s Path: Grand Strategy for the Next Administration, Center for a New American Security
- G. John Ikenberry, Thomas J. Knock, Anne-Marie Slaughter & Tony Smith, The Crisis of American Foreign Policy: Wilsonianism in the Twenty-first Century, Princeton University Press, 2008.
- Slaughter, A.-M., A. Moravcsik, W.A. Burke-White. 2005. Liberal Theory of International Law. New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.
- Slaughter, A.-M. 2004. A New World Order: Government Networks and the Disaggregated State. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Goldstein, J., M. Kahler, R.O. Keohane, and A.-M. Slaughter, eds. 2000. "Legalization and world politics: A special issue of international organization" International Organization, 54.
- Ratner, S.R., and A.-M. Slaughter, eds. 1999. "Symposium on method in international law: A special issue of the American Journal of International Law." American Journal of International Law, 93.
- Slaughter, A.-M., A. Stone Sweet, and J.H.H. Weiler, eds. 1997. The European Courts and National Courts: Doctrine and Jurisprudence. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
- Slaughter, A.-M. 2000. "International Law and International Relations Theory: Millennial Lectures." Hague Academy of International Law, Summer.
- Slaughter, A.-M., and K. Raustiala. 2001. "Considering Compliance." In Handbook of International Relations, edited by Walter Carlnaes, Thomas Risse, and Beth Simmons. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Hogan, Clara (April 3, 2013). "ANNE-MARIE SLAUGHTER NAMED NEXT PRESIDENT OF NEW AMERICA FOUNDATION". NEW AMERICA FOUNDATION. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- "Official State Department Biography: Dr. Anne-Marie Slaughter". U. S. State Department. January 27, 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-07-10.
- Brush, Silla (May 15, 2002). "Slaughter '80 named Wilson School dean". The Daily Princetonian. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- "Administration". Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- "Biography: Anne-Marie Slaughter, Director Policy Planning". U. S. State Department. Archived from the original on 2012-12-26.
- Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. "Anne-Marie Slaughter". Princeton University. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "Short biography". Andrew Moravcsik. Retrieved 2008-08-23.
- Princeton Weekly Bulletin, April 30, 2007 p.1-7
- "Resume of Anne-Marie Slaughter" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- "Anne-Marie Slaughter '76 Speaks to Upper School". The Upper School Weekly Digest. St. Anne's-Belfield School. March 22, 2012. Retrieved 2014-01-05.
Anne-Marie Slaughter ’76, acclaimed teacher, commentator, and writer in the field of international relations, returned to campus Wednesday to speak...
- Fellowship in memory of Rhodes Scholar from Princeton who studied at Worcester College, Oxford, Daniel M. Sachs. Princeton.edu.
- "J.R. Toobin Weds Amy B. McIntosh". The New York Times. June 1, 1986. Retrieved 2014-01-05.
- "Open Letter to President Shirley Tilghman, Dean Anne-Marie Slaughter, and the Princeton Community". 11 October 2005. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "Events – Archive". Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- Lipsky-Karasz, Daniel (May 14, 2003). "Forum looks at controversy over Wilson School exhibit". The Daily Princetonian. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- Long, Emily (2009-07-15). "State Department launches quadrennial review". Government Executive. Archived from the original on 26 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-13.
- LaFranchi, Howard (2010-12-15). "Hillary Clinton's vision for foreign policy on a tight budget". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- Thiel, Samantha (February 1, 2011). "Slaughter '80 returns to Wilson School". The Daily Princetonian. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- Slaughter, Anne-Marie (July–August 2012). "Why Women Still Can't Have It All". The Atlantic.
- "Anne-Marie Slaughter". Project Syndicate. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- "New America Staff". Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Charles H. Camp and Theresa B. Bowman: "The Responsibility to Protect: Reading Ethical Responsibilities Into the Rule of Law", 20 Mar 2014
- lawnet.fordham.edu: "A New U.N. For a New Century", FLR (2006) 74(6) 2961
- nytimes.com: "THE STRUGGLE FOR IRAQ; In Annan and Chirac's Words: 'Fork in the Road' and 'Call a Summit'", 24 Sep 2003
- ft.com: "Why Libya sceptics were proved badly wrong", 24 Aug 2011
- pomed.org: 'Libya Op-Eds: “Bar Too High?” and Challenging Skeptics'
- reason.com: "Anne-Marie Slaughter's End Zone Dancing and Situational Constitutionalism", 25 Aug 2011
- townhall.com: "The Demise of ‘Responsibility to Protect’ at The U.N.", 15 Oct 2014
- forbes.com: "Libya: Hold Policymakers Accountable For Another Washington War Gone Bad", 26 Feb 2015
- nytimes.com: "How to Halt the Butchery in Syria", 23 Feb 2012
- nationaljournal.com: "ANALYSIS - Getting Serious About Syria", 24 Feb 2012
- washingtonpost.com: "Syrian intervention risks upsetting global order", 1 Jun 2012
- washingtonpost.com: "Syrian intervention is justifiable, and just", 8 Jun 2012
- Anne-Marie Slaughter (31 July 2012). "We will pay a high price if we do not arm Syria's rebels". Financial Times. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- Kantor, Jodi (June 21, 2012). "Elite Women Put a New Spin on an Old Debate". The New York Times.
- "Record Hits On Mag's 'Can't Have It All' Story". NPR. June 22, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- "The gender debate, at least, has had it all". Globe and Mail. July 21, 2012.
- Blair, Elaine (September 23, 2015). "Anne-Marie Slaughter’s ‘Unfinished Business’". The New York Times.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anne-Marie Slaughter.|
- Slaughter's home page at Princeton
- Texts by Slaughter at openDemocracy
- AmericaAbroad blog
- Anne-Marie Slaughter on Twitter
- Interview with Slaughter on her work and thoughts, on the occasion of her being awarded an honorary degree by the University of Warwick on 18 July 2013
- Anne-Marie Slaughter at TED
- Appearances on C-SPAN