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Bead net dress (UC17743) excavated in 1923-24 from the site, Petrie Museum
Bead net dress (UC17743) excavated in 1923-24 from the site, Petrie Museum
Tjebu is located in Egypt
Location in Egypt
Coordinates: 26°54′N 31°31′E / 26.900°N 31.517°E / 26.900; 31.517
Country  Egypt
Governorate Sohag
Time zone EST (UTC+2)

Tjebu or Djew-Qa, was an ancient Egyptian city located on the eastern bank of the Nile in what is now Sohag Governorate, Egypt. In Greek and Roman Egypt, its name was Antaeopolis after its tutelary deity, the war god known by the Hellenized name Antaeus. Its modern name is Qaw El Kebir.

Several large terraced funerary complexes in Tjebu by officials of the 10th Nome during the Twelfth and Thirteenth Dynasties represent the peak of non-royal funerary architecture of the Middle Kingdom. Cemeteries of different dates were also found in the area. A Ptolemaic temple of Ptolemy IV Philopator, enlarged and restored under Ptolemy VI Philometor and Marcus Aurelius, was destroyed in the first half of the nineteenth century.

Three alabaster granary vases. 5th Dynasty. From Qau (Tjebu, Qaw El Kebir, Antaeopolis), Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

The temple in this town was large, comparatively speaking—an 18-column pronaos, with a twelve-column hypostyle hall preceding the vestibule hall, the inner sanctum, and two flanking chambers of equal size.[1]

The edifice was dedicated primarily to "Antaeus", who represented a warrior fusion of Seth and Horus. This deity's name is written with an obscure hieroglyph (G7a or G7b in the standard Gardiner list), which gives no clue as to the pronunciation. Modern Egyptologists read the name as Nemtiwey.

Nephthys was the primary goddess who received worship in this temple, or perhaps in an adjunct shrine of her own, as the corresponding female power of Nemtiwey. A Prophet of Nephthys is attested for Tjebu.[2] In cliffside quarries not far from the ancient site, visitors can see notable reliefs of both Antaeus and Nephthys.[3] At the same time, the site has again drawn most of its interest since 19th- and early 20th-century archaeologists have studied the maze of relatively well-preserved tombs in the district.[4]


  1. ^ Description de l'Egypte, pp. 422–425.
  2. ^ Cf. Lexikon der A, E. Graefe, Nephthys, Chicago Stele.
  3. ^ Cf. Baedeker, 1902, etc.
  4. ^ Cf. Petrie, Flinders, Antaeopolis the Tombs of Qau (Egypt), London, Quaritch 1930.

Coordinates: 26°54′N 31°31′E / 26.900°N 31.517°E / 26.900; 31.517