Governorates of Egypt

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Governorates are the first-level of the subdivisions. Egypt is divided, for administrative purposes, into twenty-seven governorates (محافظة muḥāfaẓah  Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [moˈħɑfzˤɑ]; genitive case: muḥāfaẓat  [moˈħɑfzˤet]; plural محافظات muḥāfaẓāt  [moħɑfˈzˤɑːt]).[1] Egyptian governorates are the top tier of the country's jurisdiction hierarchy. A governorate is administered by a governor, who is appointed by the President of Egypt and serves at the president's discretion. Most governorates have a population density of more than one thousand per km², while the three largest have a population density of less than two per km².

Overview[edit]

Governorates are either fully "urban" or else a mixture of "urban" and "rural". The official distinction between "urban" and "rural" is reflected in the lower tiers: i.e. fully urban governorates have no regions (markaz), as the markaz is, natively, a conglomeration of villages. Moreover, governorates may comprise just one city, as in the case of Cairo Governorate or Alexandria Governorate. Hence, these one-city governorates are only divided into districts (urban neighborhoods). Cairo Governorate consists of 41 districts; Alexandria Governorate consists of 7.

Two new governorates were created in April 2008: Helwan and 6th of October.[2] In April 2011, however, the 6th of October and Helwan governorates were again incorporated into the Giza and Cairo Governorates, respectively.[3] Luxor was created in December 2009, to be the 29th governorate of Egypt, but with the abolition of the 6th of October and Helwan governorates, the number of governorates has decreased to 27.[4]

History[edit]

Before 1979, "local government traditionally enjoyed limited power in Egypt's highly centralized state. Under the central government, there were twenty-six governorates. These were subdivided into regions (conglomeration of villages; named in Arabic: مركز‎‎ markaz  "center", plural: مراكز marākiz), each of which was further subdivided into towns or villages.[5]

At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, and mayors, respectively. Governors were appointed by the president, and they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers. The coercive backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the Ministry of Interior through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman.[5]

Before the 1952 revolution, state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables. However, under Nasser, land reform reduced their socioeconomic dominance, and the incorporation of peasants into cooperatives transferred mass dependence from landlords to the government. The extension of officials into the countryside permitted the regime to bring development and services to the village. The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union (ASU), fostered a certain peasant political activism and coopted the local notables—in particular the village headmen—and checked their independence from the regime.[5]

State penetration did not retreat under Sadat and Mubarak. The earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact. The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state. The district police station balanced the notables, and the system of local government (the mayor and council) integrated them into the regime.[5]

Sadat took several measures to decentralize power to the provinces and towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces. The elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget. In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. Local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, and the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, and these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. Under Mubarak decentralization and local autonomy became more of a reality, and local policies often reflected special local conditions. Thus, officials in Upper Egypt often bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers."[5]


List of Governorates of Egypt[edit]

Egypt, administrative divisions - Nmbrs - colored.svg
Egyptian governorates[6]
No. on
map
Name Area (km2) Population (2015) Capital
2 Alexandria 2,300 4,812,186 Alexandria
27 Aswan 62,726 1,431,488 Aswan
22 Asyut 25,926 4,245,215 Asyut
3 Beheira 9,826 5,804,262 Damanhur
19 Beni Suef 10,954 2,856,812 Beni Suef
16 Cairo 3,085 9,278,441 Cairo
5 Dakahlia 3,538 5,949,001 Mansoura
6 Damietta 910 1,330,843 Damietta
15 Faiyum 6,068 3,170,150 Faiyum
9 Gharbia 1,942 4,751,865 Tanta
14 Giza 13,184 7,585,115 Giza
13 Ismailia 5,067 1,178,641 Ismailia
4 Kafr El Sheikh 3,467 3,172,753 Kafr El Sheikh
26 Luxor 2,410 1,147,058 Luxor
1 Matruh 166,563 447,846 Marsa Matruh
20 Minya 32,279 5,156,702 Minya
10 Monufia 2,499 3,941,293 Shibin El Kom
21 New Valley 440,098 225,416 Kharga
8 North Sinai 28,992 434,781 Arish
7 Port Said 1,345 666,599 Port Said
11 Qalyubia 1,124 5,105,972 Banha
25 Qena 10,798 3,045,504 Qena
23 Red Sea 119,099 345,775 Hurghada
12 Sharqia 4,911 6,485,412 Zagazig
24 Sohag 11,022 4,603,861 Sohag
18 South Sinai 31,272 167,426 El Tor
17 Suez 9,002 622,859 Suez
Total 1,010,407 87,963,276

Demographics by Governorate[edit]

Main article: Demographics of Egypt

Urban and Rural Population of Governorates[edit]

Data taken from CAPMAS:[6]

Governorate  % Urban Population (2015) Rural Urban
Alexandria 98.8 4,812,186 56,698 4,755,488
Aswan 42.3 1,431,488 826,543 604,945
Asyut 26.5 4,245,215 3,119,112 1,126,103
Beheira 19.5 5,804,262 4,674,346 1,129,916
Beni Suef 23.2 2,856,812 2,193,871 662,941
Cairo 100.0 9,278,441 0 9,278,441
Dakahlia 28.2 5,949,001 4,271,428 1,677,573
Damietta 38.7 1,330,843 815,244 515,599
Faiyum 22.5 3,170,150 2,456,368 713,782
Gharbia 30.0 4,751,865 3,324,630 1,427,235
Giza 58.6 7,585,115 3,138,310 4,446,805
Ismailia 45.4 1,178,641 643,778 534,863
Kafr El Sheikh 23.1 3,172,753 2,441,246 731,507
Luxor 37.8 1,147,058 713,422 433,636
Matruh 70.6 447,846 131,841 316,005
Minya 18.9 5,156,702 4,183,284 973,418
Monufia 20.6 3,941,293 3,128,460 812,833
New Valley 48.0 225,416 117,180 108,236
North Sinai 60.2 434,781 173,095 261,686
Port Said 100.0 666,599 0 666,599
Qalyubia 44.7 5,105,972 2,825,045 2,280,927
Qena 19.7 3,045,504 2,445,051 600,453
Red Sea 95.1 345,775 17,062 328,713
Sharqia 23.1 6,485,412 4,987,707 1,497,705
Sohag 21.4 4,603,861 3,618,543 985,318
South Sinai 51.1 167,426 81,924 85,502
Suez 100.0 622,859 0 622,859
Total 42.7 87,963,276 50,384,188 37,579,088

Population Density by Governorate[edit]

Egyptian Population Density in pre-2013 administrative divisions[needs update]

Data taken from CAPMAS:.[6] Information for population is in thousands, pop density - persons/sq.km and area is in sq.km.

Governorate Population in thousands (2014-07-01) Pop. Density (Inhabited Area) Pop. Density (Total Area) % Inhabited to Total Inhabited Area Total Area
Alexandria 4,761 2,841.5 2,070.0 72.8 1,675.50 2,300.00
Aswan 1,412 13,477.1 22.5 0.2 104.77 62,726.00
Asyut 4,181 2,656.3 161.3 6.1 1,574.00 25,926.00
Beheira 5,720 806.3 582.1 72.2 7,093.84 9,826.00
Beni Suef 2,812 2,053.4 256.7 12.5 1,369.41 10,954.00
Cairo 9,184 48,235.3 2,976.8 6.2 190.40 3,085.12
Dakahlia 5,881 1,662.1 1,662.1 100.0 3,538.23 3,538.23
Damietta 1,316 1,968.7 1,445.7 73.4 668.47 910.26
Faiyum 3,118 1,680.0 513.8 30.6 1,856.00 6,068.00
Gharbia 4,698 2,418.7 2,418.7 100.0 1,942.34 1,942.34
Giza 7,487 6,286.3 567.9 9.0 1,191.00 13,184.00
Ismailia 1,162 229.3 229.3 100.0 5,066.97 5,066.97
Kafr El Sheikh 3,132 903.5 903.5 100.0 3,466.69 3,466.69
Luxor 1,132 4,992.7 469.8 9.4 226.73 2,409.68
Matruh 437 111.4 2.6 2.4 3,921.40 166,563.00
Minya 5,076 2,104.8 157.3 7.5 2,411.65 32,279.00
Monufia 3,890 1,596.9 1,556.6 97.5 2,435.93 2,499.00
New Valley 222 205.1 0.5 0.2 1,082.24 440,098.00
North Sinai 428 203.7 14.8 7.2 2,100.84 28,992.00
Port Said 660 499.7 490.7 98.2 1,320.68 1,344.96
Qalyubia 5,044 4,702.1 4,486.4 95.4 1,072.72 1,124.28
Qena 3,001 1,724.1 277.9 16.1 1,740.63 10,798.00
Red Sea 341 4,794.0 2.9 0.1 71.13 119,099.13
Sharqia 6,402 1,343.7 1,303.6 97.0 4,764.28 4,911.00
Sohag 4,536 2,845.8 411.5 14.5 1,593.92 11,022.00
South Sinai 166 9.9 5.3 53.7 16,791.00 31,272.00
Suez 615 68.3 68.3 100.0 9,002.21 9,002.21
Total 86,814 1109.1 85.9 7.8 78272.98 1010407.87

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Governorates of Egypt". Statoids. Retrieved 16 October 2016. 
  2. ^ Reem Leila. "Redrawing the map". Al Ahram Weekly (On-line). Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  3. ^ http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/0/10037/Egypt/Egypts-PM-centralises-Helwan-and--October-governor.aspx
  4. ^ "Luxor announced Egypt's 29th governorate". Archived from the original on February 13, 2010. Retrieved 2009-12-08. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Metz, ed, Helen Chapin (1990). Egypt: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c "Egypt in Figures 2015" (PDF). CAPMAS. Retrieved 2015-08-01. 

External links[edit]