Anthias anthias

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Anthias anthias
Anthias anthias.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Serranidae
Genus: Anthias
Species:
A. anthias
Binomial name
Anthias anthias

Anthias anthias (commonly known as the swallowtail seaperch[1]) is a species of fish in the family Serranidae which can reach a length of about 27 cm.[2] Its binomial name is a tautonym. They were named by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. It is a small marine fish commonly referred to as the swallowtail sea perch. The fish is commonly a bycatch (unwanted) in commercial fishing for other larger fishes.

Taxonomy and phylogeny[edit]

Class

Actinopterygii are fish known as ray-finned fishes. They are characterised as fish with long bony rays that support their fins. There are over 27,000 species of actinopterygii.

Family

Serranidae are characterised by a single long dorsal fin, a large mouth with a protruding lower lip, and small scales. They are yellow, pink, red, and orange. They are 11 cm-27 cm in length. There are 11 species in this family. There were more until they were moved into other families.

Subfamily

Anthiadinae are characterised by large shoaling groups, with intimate subgroups called harems. They have one dominant male and 2-12 females. They may also have 1-2 submissive males.

Genus

Anthias are found in the deeper parts of the reef. They usually feed on zooplankton.

Description[edit]

Anthias anthias is typically bright pink and salmon colored. The tail fin of the species includes a gradient of yellow, as do the spines at the top of the fish. Adult swallowtail sea perch grow up to be anywhere between 10–20 cm (4 to 8 inches). From two specimens collected in 2016 obtained by a bottom trawler operating off the coast of Damietta in Egypt, more specific biometric characteristics were recorded. The average length of the collected specimens was 12.8 centimeters, falling in range with expected measurements. Eyes of the fish are rather small, as they averaged to be around ten millimeters in diameter. Morphometric characteristics of the species include having ten spines in which the third appears longer than the rest. These spines consisted of a total of fifteen rays. The pectoral region consists of one pectoral fin and approximately 17 rays. The tail region of the specimen subsists of one anal fin and three spines alongside seven rays. Lastly, the species collected were seen to have one ventral fin with one spine and five rays. The rays around the anal fin are noticeably smaller than those near the pelvis. Other feature of the Anthias anthias include the dorsal fin being on the same vertical line running along the specimen as the pectoral fin. The tail fin of the fish is a quarter of the body depth as a whole.[3]

Lifecycle[edit]

A. anthias typically feed on other small marine animals. One of the more common preys are crustaceans, including small shrimp, krill, isopods, and barnacles. The species is known to be a protogynous hermaphrodite, meaning that its reproductive organs are associated with both males and female sexes. In the case of protogynous hermaphrodites, specimens develop into males first, and later on in life, start to develop female characteristics and phenotypes.[4]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

A. anthias prefers warm water climates as it can be found in or around warm bodies of water such as the Mediterranean Sea and Black sea. Many of the sea perch are also exhibited to be living in the East Atlantic, off the coast of Africa. More specifically, they can be found from the coast of Portugal, all the way to northern Namibia. Anthias anthias can be found swimming at a wide range of depth. The shallowest is 15 meters deep, but the deepest of the population can be found swimming at depths near 300 meters deep. They tend to live over rock and gravel areas and occasionally they can be found in submarine caves.[5]

Specimens[edit]

Anthias anthias are common in fish tanks. They can be found at many fish stores.

Other species[edit]

Anthias salmopunctatus, a sister species, is endemic to Brazil.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wood, Lawson (2015-09-03). Sea Fishes Of The Mediterranean Including Marine Invertebrates. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 342–. ISBN 9781472921765. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  2. ^ Bianchi, G.; Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United (1999). Field Guide to the Living Marine Resources of Namibia. Food & Agriculture Org. pp. 240–. ISBN 9789251043455. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  3. ^ Lipej, L.; Acevedo, Iván; Akel, El; Anastasopoulou, Aikaterini (Katerina; Angelidis, Akis; Azzurro, Ernesto; Castriota, Luca; çelik, Murat; Lucrezia, Cilenti (2017-03-31). New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (March 2017). 13.
  4. ^ "Anthias anthias (Barbier, Sea Perch, Swallowtail Seaperch, Swallowtail Sea Perch)". www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2018-02-27.
  5. ^ "Anthias anthias (Barbier, Sea Perch, Swallowtail Seaperch, Swallowtail Sea Perch)". www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2018-02-27.

Further reading[edit]

  1. Fish identification
  2. World Registrar of Marine Species
  3. ICUN Red List profile