Ants Kurvits

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Ants Kurvits
Ants Kurvits.jpg
General Ants Kurvits
Born 14 May 1887
Died 27 December 1943 (aged 56)
Allegiance Russia Russian Empire
Estonia Estonia
Service/branch Imperial Russian Army
Estonian Army
Estonian Border Guard
Years of service Russia: 1914–1917
Estonia: 1918–1939
Rank Major general
Battles/wars World War I
Estonian War of Independence
Awards See below

Ants Kurvits or Hans Kurvits (May 14, 1887 – December 27, 1943) was an Estonian military commander, reaching rank of Major General. He participated in the Estonian War of Independence and later became founder and long time leader of the Estonian Border Guard. Kurvits also served briefly as Minister of War.

Early life[edit]

Ants Kurvits was born on 14 May 1887 in Mihkli-Aadu farm in Äksi, Tartu County, Estonia, then part of the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire. He was fifth child in family. Kurvits received early education in Hugo Treffner Gymnasium. After graduating in 1911 he went to University of Tartu, where he studied law until breakout of World War I in 1914.[1]

Career[edit]

Estonian Border Guard badge

On 1 November 1914 Kurvits joined the Imperial Russian Army. In 1915, after passing a short officer course in Vladimir Military School in St Petersburg, he was promoted to the rank of Ensign. In the First World War he participated in fighting on the Polish front, becoming company commander by 1917. With the formation of Estonian national units, Kurvits was assigned to the 1st Estonian Infantry Regiment on 8 July 1917, first as company and later as battalion commander. In February 1918 he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.[1][2]

On 16 November 1918, after the end of the Imperial German Occupation in Estonia, Kurvits became commander of the Estonian Defence League in Tartu County. On 25 December he started forming the Viljandi Volunteer Battalion. On 5 February 1919 Kurvits was assigned to head the 2nd Infantry Regiment, which he led during fighting on the Petseri front. Briefly in late 1919 and early 1920, while major fighting was ongoing, he served as garrison commander of Narva and aide to the commander of the 1st division. After the end of the war Kurvits served as commander of the 2nd and later the 7th infantry regiments until his retirement in October 1921.[1]

On 1 November 1922 Kurvits was recalled to service and made head of the newly forming Estonian Border Guard, becoming its first commander.[1][3] In 1924 he briefly served as Minister of War in the government of Friedrich Akel. After that he returned to head the Border Guard, holding this position up to 1939. In February 1928 he was promoted to Colonel, and in February 1932 to Major General. As head of the border guard Kurvits made official visits to Latvia, Finland and Poland.[1] Head of Border Guard was subordinate to the High Commander of the defence forces, holding rights equal to a division commander.[4]

By May 1923 the Border Guard had taken over from Defense Forces guarding of the whole Estonian border. Border Guard guarded 1159 km of sea border at north and west, 276 km of Soviet border at east and 365 km of Latvia border at south. During period of 1923 - 1939 the Border Guard exposed 4491 cases of smuggling and caught 4651 illegal border crossers.[5] While subordinate to the Minister of Internal Affairs, border guards were all professional military personnel.[4] General Kurvits retired on 22 December 1939.[1]

Death[edit]

After start of Soviet Occupation in 1940 the General's family lost their flat in Tallinn and moved back to Mihkli-Aadu farm. On 14 June 1941 Ants Kurvits and his wife Anna were deported as part of first Soviet mass deportation from Baltic states. General was moved to Kirov prison camp in Sosva[disambiguation needed], Sverdlovsk oblast. On 27 December 1943 he died in Soviet imprisonment.[1][2]

Honors[edit]

During his lifetime General Kurvits received numerous awards from Estonia, Russian Empire, Latvia, Finland and Poland, including Estonian Cross of Liberty 1st grade 2nd class, Russian Order of St. George 4th class and Latvian Order of Lāčplēsis 3rd class.[1]

In May 2012 new multi-purpose ship of the Estonian Police and Border Guard Board Kindral Kurvits (PVL-101), was named after General Kurvits.[6]

Personal life[edit]

Kurvits married with his wife Anna Ariva on 26 December 1917. They had three daughters. After Ants Kurvits became head of border guard family moved to Tallinn, where they lived up to Soviet Occupation period. Home farm at Mihkli-Aadu remained family's summer home.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Võime, Lembit (1997-05-08). "Eesti kutselise piirivalve ülesehitaja" (in Estonian). Postimees. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  2. ^ a b Kaevats, Ülo; et al. (2000). Eesti entsüklopeedia 14 (in Estonian). Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus. p. 199. ISBN 9985700643. 
  3. ^ Teesalu, Ingrid (2012-05-14). "Estonian, Georgian Border Guards Step Up Cooperation". Eesti Rahvusringhääling. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  4. ^ a b "Ministry of the Interior 1918 - 1940". Estonian Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  5. ^ "Eesti piirivalve 1918–1940" (in Estonian). Police and Border Guard Board. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  6. ^ Barbieri, Thomas (March 2012). "Kindral Kurvits - the right solution to fight pollution". Lamor. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Oskar Amberg
Minister of War
1924
Succeeded by
Jaan Soots