Smooth lumpfish

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Smooth lumpfish
Smooth lumpsucker.jpg
Not evaluated (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Aptocyclus

Species:
A. ventricosus
Binomial name
Aptocyclus ventricosus
(Pallas, 1769)

The smooth lumpfish (Aptocyclus ventricosus) is a species of lumpfish native to the North Pacific where it is found at depths down to 1,700 metres (5,600 ft). This species grows to a length of 41 centimetres (16 in) TL. This species is the only known member of its genus.[1]

Description[edit]

Smooth lumpfish, or smooth lumpsucker, is a deep sea fish species with a body length of 6–44 cm and body weight of 0.05-4.20 kg on average.[2] They look brownish gray with dark spots dorsally, muddy gray ventrally. They have naked Skin without scales and tubercles. A smooth lumpfish has no dorsal spines or anal spines, eight to nine dorsal soft rays, seven to nine anal soft rays. They have rounded caudal fin, large and broadly based pectoral fins. Their pelvic fins are modified to form a clinging disc with a thickened margin on the ventral surface of the body. They have their first dorsal fins completed embedded under the skin.[3]

Habitat and Diet[edit]

Smooth lumpfish are widely distributed throughout the North Pacific, especially the Aleutian Basin. They inhabit both near bottom and mid-water layers ranging from 5 to 1700 m. They are preyed by some fish species, marine mammals and sea birds.[4] The preferred diets of smooth lumpfish are medusa and ctenophores. They also feed on pelagic polychaetes and crustacean occasionally.[5]

Reproduction[edit]

The smooth lumpfish is an iteroparous gonochoristic species with determinate fecundity, group-synchronous ovary organization, total spawning (release of 1 batch of eggs per breeding season), and external fertilization.[6] Smooth lumpfish perform spawning migration from deep-ocean to coastal zones, where breeding occurs over a rocky bottom at depths shallower than 10 m. A thick envelope protects these demersal eggs from mechanical damage during development in the coastal zone. The incubation time between fertilization and hatching is more than 40 days. Males protect the egg clusters after females spawn.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Aptocyclus ventricosus" in FishBase. December 2012 version.
  2. ^ Orlov, A.M. & Tokranov, A.M. (2008). Specific features of distribution, some features of biology, and the dynamics of catches of smooth lumpsucker Aptocyclus ventricosus (Cyclopteridae) in waters of the Pacific Ocean off the Kuril Islands and Kamchatka. J. Ichthyol, 48: 81. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0032945208010086
  3. ^ Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p.
  4. ^ Zhukova, K., Maznikova, O. A., & Orlov, A. M. (2018). Gonadal maturation of the female smooth lumpsucker (Aptocyclus ventricosus). Fishery Bulletin, 116(2), 153-160. doi:10.7755/fb.116.2.4
  5. ^ Yoshida, H., & Yamaguchi, H. (1985). Distribution and Feeding Habits of the Pelagic Smooth Lumpsucker, Aptocyclus ventricosus (Pallas), in the Aleutian Basin*. BULLETIN OF THE FACULTY OF FISHERIES HOKKAIDO UNIVERSITY, 36(4), 200-209. Retrieved February 26, 2018, from http://hdl.handle.net/2115/23891
  6. ^ Zhukova, K., Maznikova, O. A., & Orlov, A. M. (2018). Gonadal maturation of the female smooth lumpsucker (Aptocyclus ventricosus). Fishery Bulletin, 116(2), 153-160. doi:10.7755/fb.116.2.4
  7. ^ Zhukova, K., Maznikova, O. A., & Orlov, A. M. (2018). Gonadal maturation of the female smooth lumpsucker (Aptocyclus ventricosus). Fishery Bulletin, 116(2), 153-160. doi:10.7755/fb.116.2.4