Arctoidea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Arctoids
Temporal range: Eocene - Holocene, 46–0 Ma
Ailurus fulgens RoterPanda LesserPanda.jpg
Red panda
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Caniformia
Infraorder: Arctoidea

Arctoidea is an infraorder of extinct and extant mostly carnivorous mammals which include the extinct group Hemicyonidae (dog-bears), and extant groups Musteloidea (weasels, raccoons, skunks, red pandas), Pinnipedia (seals, sea lions), and Ursidae (bears), found in all continents from the Eocene, 46 million years ago, to the present.[1] Arctoids are caniforms, along with dogs (canids) and extinct bear dogs (Amphicyonidae). The earliest caniforms were superficially similar to martens, which are tree-dwelling mustelids. Together with cats, caniforms comprise the order Carnivora.

Taxonomy[edit]

Arctoidea was named by Flower (1869). It was reranked as the unranked clade Arctoidea by Hunt (2001), Hunt (2002) and Hunt (2002); it was reranked as the infraorder Arctoidea by Koretsky (2001), Zhai et al. (2003) and Labs Hochstein (2007). It was assigned to Carnivora by Flower (1883), Barnes (1987), Barnes (1988), Carroll (1988), Barnes (1989), Barnes (1992), Hunt (2001), Hunt (2002) and Hunt (2002); and to Caniformia by Tedford (1976), Bryant (1991), Wang and Tedford (1992), Tedford et al. (1994), Koretsky (2001), Zhai et al. (2003), Wang et al. (2005), Owen (2006), Peigné et al. (2006) and Labs Hochstein (2007).[2][3][4]

Family tree[edit]

The cladogram is based on molecular phylogeny of six genes in Flynn, 2005.[5]


   Caniformia   

AmphicyonidaeYsengrinia americana



Canidae African golden wolf


   Arctoidea   
   Ursoidea   

HemicyonidaeHemicyon sansaniensis



Ursidae American black bear




Pinnipedia

EnaliarctidaeEnaliarctos mealsi.JPG



   

PhocidaeCommon seal



   

Otariidae California sea lion



Odobenidae Pacific walrus





   Musteloidea   
   

Ailuridae Red panda



   

Mephitidae Striped skunk



   

Procyonidae Common raccoon



Mustelidae European polecat









References[edit]

  1. ^ Paleobiology Database: Arctoidea Basic info[permanent dead link].
  2. ^ R. M. Hunt. 2001. Small Oligocene amphicyonids from North America (Paradaphoenus, Mammalia, Carnivora). American Museum Novitates 3331:1-20
  3. ^ I. Koretsky. 2001. Morphology and systematics of Miocene Phocinae (Mammalia: Carnivora) from Paratethys and the North Atlantic region. Geologica Hungarica Series Palaeontologica 54:1-109
  4. ^ J. Labs Hochstein. 2007. A new species of Zodiolestes (Mammalia, Mustelidae) from the early Miocene of Florida. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(2):532-534
  5. ^ Flynn, J. J.; Finarelli, J. A.; Zehr, S.; Hsu, J.; Nedbal, M. A. (2005). "Molecular phylogeny of the Carnivora (Mammalia): Assessing the impact of increased sampling on resolving enigmatic relationships". Systematic Biology. 54 (2): 317–37. doi:10.1080/10635150590923326. PMID 16012099.