^For example: Corry, Richard (2016). "Did Climate Change Cause That ?". In Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Brownlee, Kimberley; Coady, David. A Companion to Applied Philosophy. Blackwell Companions to Philosophy. Chichester: Wiley. p. 475. ISBN9781118869116. Retrieved 2016-10-14. Epidemiologists have long estimated such probabilities using the concept of Fraction of Attributable Risk (FAR), and in 2004, Stott, Stone, and Allen applied this concept to the question of whether climate change was responsible for the heat wave that struck Europe in 2003 [...]. The Fraction of Attributable risk is a way of measuring the contribution a particular factor makes to an outcome.