Bahman Jadhuyih

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Bahman Jadhuyih
Died 636
Al-Qadisiyyah, Iraq
Allegiance Derafsh Kaviani.png Sasanian Empire
Service/branch Sasanian army
Battles/wars Muslim conquest of Persia

Bahman Jādhūyah/Jādūyah (also Jādhōē/Jādōē; New Persian: بهمن جادویه), or Bahman Jādhawayh (Arabic: بهمن جاذويه‎‎) (in Middle Persian: Vahūman Ĵādaggōw) was an Iranian general of the Sasanians. He had a reputation for being anti-Arab.[1] He is mostly known to have led the Sasanians to victory against the Arabs at the Battle of the Bridge. The Arab forces referred to Bahman as Dhul Hājib,[2] (ذو الحاجب, "owner of bushy eyebrows").[1] He is often confused with Mardanshah,[1] another Sasanian general.

Biography[edit]

Nothing is known of his early life, but Bahman Jadhuyih is recorded as an old man by 634. Bahman may have been the son of the Sasanian commander Hormozd Jadhuyih. Bahman is first mentioned in 633, as one of the spokesmen for the Sasanians and a member of the Parsig faction led by Piruz Khosrow.[3] In 633, the Sasanian monarch ordered a Sasanian commander named Andarzaghar who was in charge of protecting the borders of Khorasan[3] to protect the western frontiers from the Arabs who were plundering Persia.

In 633, Andarzaghar, along with Bahman Jadhuyih, made a counter-attack against the army of Khalid ibn al-Walid at Walaja, but were defeated. After the defeat, Bahman fled to Ctesiphon, where he found Yazdegerd sick. However, Bahman was shortly ordered by the latter to make a counter-attack against the Arabs. Bahman, however, disobeyed the child king and sent Jaban to fight the Arabs instead. Jaban, who was sent alone on the western front to confront the Arabs, was defeated at the battle of Ullais.[4]

When the Arabs under Abu Ubaid were making an expedition in the Sawad in 634, Rostam Farrokhzād sent Bahman Jadhuyih and Jalinus against him with a force from the powerful Wuzurgan class, who had units such as war elephants and the Zhayedan. Rostam is known to have told Bahman that: "if Jalinus returns to the like of his defeat, then cut off his head."[5]

During the battle the army of Bahman had an advantage: the elephants in his army frightened the Arabs' horses, and which later resulted in the death of Abu Ubaid. The bridge was then broken by an Arab, and around 4,000 Arabs died by drowning and many others were killed by the Bahman's forces. Al-Muthanna managed to flee from the bridge and rally 3,000 Arab survivors; however, some of them fled back to Medina. Bahman did not pursue the fleeing Arab army.[6] In 636 during the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah Bahman was killed by Qa’qa ibn Amr in revenge for the death of Abu Ubaid and the others killed at the Battle of the Bridge.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d BAHMAN JĀDŪYA, M. Morony, Encyclopaedia Iranica
  2. ^ Ṭabarī, Yohanan Friedmann (1992). The battle of al-Qādisiyyah and the conquest of Syria and Palestine. SUNY Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-7914-0733-2. 
  3. ^ a b Pourshariati (2008), p. 195
  4. ^ Pourshariati (2008), p. 196
  5. ^ Pourshariati (2008), p. 217
  6. ^ Richard Nelson Frye, The Cambridge History of Iran: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge University Press, 1975. (p. 9)

Sources[edit]