Benjamin Victor Cohen
|Benjamin Victor Cohen|
September 23, 1894|
|Died||August 15, 1983
|Alma mater||University of Chicago
Harvard Law School
|Known for||Key member of Franklin Roosevelt brain trust|
Benjamin Victor Cohen (September 23, 1894 – 1983), a member of the administrations of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, had a public service career that spanned from the early New Deal through and beyond the Vietnam War era.
Early career, Brain Trust, New Deal
Cohen was a law clerk for Judge Learned Hand. He served as counsel for the American Zionist Movement from 1919 - 1921. He acted as Zionist counsel to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Cohen practiced law in New York 1921 - 1933.
Cohen's first appearance on the national scene was as a member of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Brain Trust. Cohen became a part of the Roosevelt administration in 1933 when Felix Frankfurter, then a Harvard University Law School professor, brought Cohen, Thomas Corcoran, and James M. Landis together to write what became the Truth In Securities Act. Later that year Cohen was assigned to work on railroad legislation.
World War II and post-War
In 1941, during the period leading up to the entry of the United States into World War II he helped write the Lend-Lease plan. Cohen also assisted in the drafting of the 1944 Dumbarton Oaks agreements leading to the establishment of the United Nations. In 1945 Cohen served as the United States' chief draftsman at the Potsdam Conference.
In 1942 the New York times published a letter by Cohen and co-author Erwin Griswold decrying the United States Supreme Court Betts v. Brady ruling that poor criminal defendants had no right to an attorney. Two decades later the issue again came before the Supreme Court in the Gideon v. Wainwright case. The attorneys for Gideon, the person accused of a crime, concluded their brief to the Supreme Court with a lengthy quote from the Cohen/Griswold letter. This time the Supreme Court ruled that the government must appoint attorneys for criminal defendants who cannot afford an attorney.
In 1948 Cohen advised both the United States and the new state of Israel with respect to the first official exchange between those two countries. Cohen provided crucial advice and counsel to senators working for the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957.
Jordan A. Schwarz writes "Although no government lawyer was as respected as Cohen, he never had a prominent position in government because of his palpable Jewishness."
- "Cohen was known for his slouching posture, sloppy dress, absentminded table manners - and for a skill at drafting legislation that was generally reckoned the best in the United States."
- He "looked and talked, as a friend wrote, 'like a Dickens portrait of an absent-minded professor.'"
- Report on the Work of the United Nations Disarmament Commission (1953)
- The United Nations: Constitutional Developments, Growth, and Possibilities (Harvard University Press : 1961)
- Caro, Robert A. (2002), Master of the Senate, New York: Alfred a Knopf Inc, ISBN 0-394-52836-0
- Lewis, Anthony (1964), Gideon's Trumpet, New York: Random House, ISBN 0-679-72312-9
- Louchheim, Katie (Ed.) (1983), The Making of the New Deal : The Insiders Speak, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-54345-9
- Mee, Jr., Charles L. (1975), Meeting at Potsdam, New York: M. Evans & Company, ISBN 0-87131-167-4
- Louchheim, p. 336.
- Mee (book club edition), pp. 102, 219 & 223.
- "Counsel to the President," the memoirs of Clark Clifford with Richard Holbrooke, published in 1991 (visited 9/3/09)
- Caro, pp. 949-51 & 1008.
- Schwarz, Jordan A (1994). The New Dealers. Vintage Books. p. 144.
- See Selma Jeanne Cohen Papers b. 3 f. 20.
- Mee (book club edition), p. 219
- Caro, p. 949
Lasser, William, Benjamin V. Cohen: Architect of the New Deal (Yale University Press : 2002)
Benjamin V. Cohen Papers, Zionist Archives, New York