|Parent body||2P/Encke (Taurid Complex)|
(near Zeta Tauri)
|Occurs during||June 5 – July 18|
|Date of peak||June 28–29|
|Zenithal hourly rate||25 (radar)|
|Notable features||Daytime shower|
The Beta Taurids (β–Taurids) are an annual meteor shower belonging to a class of "daytime showers" that peak after sunrise. The Beta Taurids are best observed by radar and radio-echo techniques.
The Beta Taurids are normally active from June 5 to July 18. They emanate from an average radiant of right ascension 5h18m, declination +21.2 and exhibit maximum activity around June 28–29 (Solar Longitude=98.3 deg).[a] The maximum hourly rate typically reaches about 25 as seen on radar. Non-radio observers are faced with a very difficult prospect, because the Beta Taurid radiant is just 10–15 degrees west of the Sun on June 28.[b]
These Beta Taurids are the same meteoroid stream as the Taurids (which form a meteor shower in late October). The Earth intersects this stream of debris twice, once in late October and once in late June, forming two separate meteor showers. However, because the October event occurs at night, it is far more visible and better known than the Beta Taurids, which peak during daylight hours.
2019 was predicted to be the closest post-perihelion encounter with Earth since 1975. The Taurid swarm was expected to pass 0.06 AU (9,000,000 km; 5,600,000 mi) below the ecliptic between June 23 – July 17.
During 2019 astronomers searched for hypothesized asteroids ~100 meters in diameter from the Taurid swarm between July 5–11, and July 21 – August 10. However, as of September 2019 there have been no reports of discoveries of any such objects. There is circumstantial evidence that the daytime June 30 Tunguska event came from the same direction in the sky as the Beta Taurids. The next June close approach to the Taurid swarm is expected in 2036.
Other daytime June showers
During June two other more active daytime meteor showers are known. They are the Zeta Perseids which are also related to Taurid complex and the Arietids which are not related. Both of these showers radiate in roughly the same part of the sky as the Beta Taurids.
- The sun has a solar longitude (λ⊙) of 90 degrees on June 21 (Summer solstice) and as there are 365 days/year moves roughly 1 degree/day. The meteor shower radiant of RA=79.4 degrees converts to 5h 18m as each hour is 15 degrees.
- The International Meteor Organization's radiant of 86° +19° will be 10° from the Sun on June 28. Kronk's radiant of 79.4° +21.2° will be 15° from the Sun on June 28.
- Gary W. Kronk. "Observing the Beta Taurids". Meteor Showers Online. Archived from the original on 2007-10-23. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
- Peter Jenniskens; Petrus Matheus Marie Jenniskens (2006). Meteor Showers and Their Parent Comets. Cambridge University Press. p. 470. ISBN 978-0-521-85349-1.
- "IMO Meteor Shower Calendar 2015 (Working list of daytime radio meteor showers)". International Meteor Organization. Retrieved 2019-06-16.
- "IMO-NEWS: 1999 Beta Taurids Alert - Possible Swarm Appearance". Meteor Observing Mailing List (meteorobs). 1999-06-18. Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
- Babadzhanov, P. B. (2001). "Search for meteor showers associated with Near-Earth Asteroids". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 373 (1): 329–335. Bibcode:2001A&A...373..329B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20010583.
- Clark, David L.; Weigert, Paul; Brown, Peter G. (2019). "The 2019 Taurid resonant swarm: prospects for ground detection of small NEOs". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 487 (1): L35–L39. arXiv:1905.01260. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slz076.
- Phil Plait. "Could larger space rocks be hiding in the Beta Taurid Meteor stream? We may find out this summer". Bad Astronomy. Retrieved 2019-05-14.
- David J. Asher. "Taurid swarm years". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 2019-06-16.
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