Ancient Diocese of Carpentras

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Carpentras (Lat. dioecesis Carpentoratensis) was a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the Provence region (later part of France), from the later Roman Empire until 1801. It was part of the ecclesiastical province under the Metropolitan, the Archbishop of Arles. The bishop was a major figure in the Comtat Venaissin, and a member of the Estates of the Comtat. He was a direct appointee of the pope.

History[edit]

The first historically documented bishop of Carpentras is Constantianus, who was represented at the Council of Riez in 439, of Orange in 441, and of Vaison in 442.[1] Carpentras was a suffragan see of Arles from 450 to 1475, when it became a suffragan of Avignon.

Bishop Siffredus (Sigefridus) (c. 530-540) became the patron-saint of Carpentras.[2]

Later 6th and 7th centuries the bishops called themselves bishops of Venasque, with the exception of Boethius, who at Valence in 584 signed the acts of the council as Bishop of Carpentras. This suggests that, after Carpentras had fallen into ruin,[3] the bishops lived in nearby Venasque.[4] Carpentras is not mentioned in the context of the occupation of Provence by the Saracens (Arabs) in the ninth century or the depradations of the Northmen or of the Hungarians (924) in the tenth,[5] which may be explained by its depopulation. The bishops of Carpentras are still speaking of the "See of Carpentras or Venasque" in the late tenth century.[6]

The Jews of Carpentras: the Carrière[edit]

The Synagogue of Carpentras

Already by the beginning of the sixth century, there were significant numbers of Jews in the Midi.[7] The bishops, who met at Agde in 507, and those who met at Epaona in 517, considered it necessary to make canons concerning fraternization with Jews even more stringent. One of these was Bishop Julianus of Carpentras. It was already forbidden for clerics to dine with Jews, but the prohibition was also extended to laymen.[8] The earliest reference to a Jewish community in Carpentras is found in a set of community statutes, approved by several prominent rabbis in France, including the Rabbi of Carpentras, who may have been Jacob Tam. These belong to the first half of the twelfth century. At the beginning of the thirteenth century the Jews were expelled from Carpentras, but they returned in 1263.[9] Apparently they were able to reach an accommodation with Bishop Raimundus de Barjols, who unfortunately died in February 1275.[10]

Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, who ruled Provence in the name of his wife Joan of Toulouse, from 1249 until his death in 1271, was a vigorous persecutor of the Jews. In 1269 he issued an order for a general persecution of the Jews in his domains.[11] In his Last Will and Testament, he left the Comtat Venaissin to the papacy, and though the rest of his Will was quashed, that one provision was allowed. In 1274, therefore, Pope Gregory X became the ruler of the Comtat, and in 1275 a new bishop of Carpentras was appointed, following the death of Bishop de Barjols. The political climate had changed. On 19 July 1275, the Papal Chamberlain and Provost of Marseille, Berenguer de Séguret, was appointed sole judge in cases concerning the Jews, to the exclusion of all other magistrates.[12] On 28 February 1276, shortly after the Comtat Venaissin became the property of the popes, the Jews of Carpentras entered into an agreement with the Bishop of Carpentras, Pierre Rostaing, in which they agreed to become his vassals in exchange for his protection. They agreed as well to pay to him and his successors a series of specified taxes, but the Bishop agreed not to impose any other additional taxes on them, to guard their property, and to protect them from violence and injustice. The document was signed by sixty-four heads of families.[13] Carpentras thus became, along with Avignon, Cavaillon, and L'Isle-sur-Sorgue, one of the recognized cities of refuge from antisemitic persecution in the Comtat Venaissin.

In 1320, a different Pope, John XXII (Jacques Duèse), agreed to defend the Jews of the Comtat from the murderous onslaught of the marauding bands of antisemitic shepherds, the Pastoureux.[14] Papal protection was not, however, without a price. In a bull of 12 April 1320 that same pope revoked the agreement between the bishops of Carpentras and their Jewish community, as he took the temporal power over Carpentras which had belonged to the bishops. The Pope was now the overlord of the Jews. And in 1322 he expelled the Jews and turned their synagogue into a church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. This situation lasted for twenty years, until a new Pope, Clement VI revoked John XXII's expulsion order, and granted permission in 1343 for the rebuilding of the synagogue of Carpentras.[15] The synagogue was completed in 1367, and rebuilt in 1741; it was repaired in 1784 and 1899.[16] In 1403 Pope Benedict XIII claimed all of the taxes which the Jews had formerly paid to the bishops. Pope Clement VII confirmed their privileges in 1524, and Pope Paul III revoked them in 1539. By virtue of a bull of 26 February 1569, Pope Pius V expelled the Jews from Italian and French territory, which was immediately followed by an order of 3 August 1570 from the Legate of Avignon for them to leave by October. The Rector of the Comtat, however, permitted some of them to remain, and they eventually restored their numbers. The French Revolution brought about their complete emancipation, and after the annexation of the Comtat Venaissin in 1793 they became French citizens.[17]

Avignon Popes and Carpentras[edit]

In March 1313, at the beginning of the Avignon Papacy, Pope Clement V took up residence, with the Roman Curia, in Carpentras, where he stayed until April 1314; but, finding the city inconvenient, he departed for his home in Gascony, where he expected to recover his health, but died shortly thereafter.[18] The popes resided in the Episcopal Palace in Carpentras.[19] The comings and goings of the Papal Curia can be followed by noting the places at which their documents were written and signed.[20]

Clement V was responsible for the building of the acqueduct of Carpentras.[21] Its pipes were made of lead.[22]

Following the death of Pope Clement V, and once the mourning for the deceased pope was ended, the Conclave met in the Episcopal Palace at Carpentras. It began around 1 May 1314. The twenty-three cardinals in the Conclave proceeded at a leisurely pace, though without coming to an agreement on the election, until the Feast of S. Mary Magdalen on Monday, 22 July 1314. The Italian cardinals were supporting Guillaume de Mandagot of Lodève, Bishop of Palestrina, who was a Frenchman and a subject of Philip IV of France. The Gascon cardinals, however, who had been appointed by Clement, and were not French subjects, refused to agree. On 22 July rioting broke out among the entourages of various cardinals, and some Gascons (it is claimed) burned down the palace and much of the city. The cardinals scattered, the Italian ones reassembling at Valence and complaining loudly about the Gascons and demanding that the papal Court return to Rome where a proper Conclave could be held.[23] It was not until 28 June 1316, nearly two years later, that the Cardinals reassembled, this time at Lyon, and on 7 August elected Cardinal Jacques Duèse, who became John XXII.[24]

The Comtat Venaissin had been papal property since 1274, a legacy of Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, younger brother of Louis IX of France. The capital, which gave the county its name, had been at Venasque, but in 1320 Pope John XXII transferred the capital to Carpentras.[25] Two years later he engaged in an exchange of properties and powers with the Bishop, making the Pope the temporal lord of Carpentras as well as the Comtat.

In 1410 the Consuls of Carpentras received a request from the Consuls of Avignon to borrow Carpentras' heavy artillery and other war machines. In the Great Western Schism, the French had decided to repudiate Benedict XIII of the Avignon Obedience, who had been deposed by the Council of Pisa. They had accepted Alexander V, who had just been elected by the Cardinals who were at the Council of Pisa in June 1409. The leaders of Avignon had besieged the Catalans and Aragonese, led by Rodrigo de Luna, who were holding the Papal Palace for Benedict XIII. With the permission of Cardinal Pierre de Thury, the new Legate of Avignon and Vicar in the Comtat of Pope Alexander V, soldiers were enrolled at Carpentras and sent to Avignon.[26] It was not until the end of 1411 that the supporters of Benedict XIII surrendered and departed.

Cathedral of Carpentras[edit]

The cathedral of Carpentras was the Church of St. Siffrein, dedicated to Saint Peter and Saint Siffrein.[27] The present church, according to E. Andreoli, is the fifth on the site. The first was built in the sixth century; the second in the Carolingian period; the third in the tenth century; and the fourth at the beginning of the thirteenth century, the work of Bishop Geoffroy de Garosse.[28] The fifth is of the fifteenth century, begun under the patronage of the Avignon pope, Benedict XIII. The first stone was laid in a solemn ceremony on 22 February 1404, the Feast of Saint Peter's Chair, presided over by Archbishop Artaud of Arles, in the name of Pope Benedict XIII. The commemorative inscription survives, on the south wall of the cathedral.[29] The consecration took place in 1515.[30]

The Cathedral possesses an especially sacred relic, called the Saint-Clou, the remains of one of the nails that was used on Christ at the Crucifixion. According to the legend retailed by Gregory of Tours, two of the nails were given by Saint Helena to her son Constantine the Great, who wore one on his helmet and had the other fashioned into a bit for his horse's mouth (or into a bridle ornament).[31] One legend says that Constantine gave the Saint-Clou to Bishop Siffrein's father, involving an anachronism of major proportions.[32] Its image is found in various places in the Cathedral and on various medieval seals.[33]

The Chapter of the Cathedral was founded in 982 by Bishop Ayrardus, with sixteen Canons. In 1241 Bishop Guillelmus Beroaldi (Beroardus) had to reduce the number of Canons to twelve for financial reasons. Two of the twelve were dignities (dignités, not 'dignitaries'): the Provost and the Archdeacon (founded in 1306). There was also a Capiscol and a Sacristan, and two of the Canons served as Theologial (founded in 1602) and Penitentiary (founded in 1588). The Chapter was obliged, for sacred services, to maintain two curés of the Cathedral, a Master of the Chapel, four choirboys and four mensionarii.[34]

Saint-Jean-du-Bourg[edit]

There was a second church of importance in Carpentras, the church of Saint-Jean-du-Bourg, situated inside the fortifications, on the east side of the city. It was governed, like the Cathedral, by a Chapter of Canons, six in number, the Sacristan and five prebendary Canons. The Canons followed the Rule of Notre-Dame du Grès of the Order of Saint-Ruf. The Canons had their monastery outside the city, however, and the church there was dedicated to the Virgin Mary.[35]

Development of Carpentras[edit]

Carpentras appears to have escaped completely the ravages of the Black Death (bubonic plague) in 1348–1353. It did not suffer an invasion until 1395, and then was free of trouble until 1468.[36]

The Dominican monk, Vincent Ferrer, lived and preached in Carpentras from 22 November 1399 to 12 February 1400.[37]

On his death in November 1452, Bishop Georges d'Ornas ordered in his Will that his library be sold, and the proceeds contributed to the building of the new cathedral. A part of the library was sold, but then a number of people, led by the new bishop Michel Anglici and by Roger de Foix the Rector of the Comtat Venaissin, intervened, and determined to preserve the remaining books for the education and training of clerics and of the citizens and inhabitants of Carpentras. To make the books available to the public, those which pertained to liturgy and ecclesiastical matters were chained up in the Choir of the cathedral; the others were placed by Bishp Anglici in one of the chapels, the most important on chains and the rest in cupboards.[38]

Protestantism[edit]

Comtat venaissin.png

The first Protestant to be found in Carpentras was Claude Baduel, a humanist scholar and a Lutheran, who had been a teacher at the collège of arts in Nîmes. He was an acquaintance of Cardinal Jacopo Sadoleto. In 1544, just as Sadoleto and the Consuls of Carpentras were engaged in a search for a new principal for their collège, Baduel make known his desire to seek a new field for his work outside Nîmes.[39] His application for the position at Carpentras took the form of an elegantly written Latin treatise on education of the youth, and addressed to Cardinal Sadoleto.[40] He took up the position in September 1544, but in April 1545, the notorious Massacre of Mérindol in the Vaucluse, some forty miles from Carpentras, occurred. The royally authorized massacre of Waldensians (Vaudois) eventually involved more than twenty-two towns and villages including Cabrières, and Baduel decided in December to return to his former position in Nîmes. The Lutheran movement in the Comtat collapsed.[41]

In 1562, at the beginning of the Wars of Religion in France, the Huguenot general, the Baron des Adrets, made his descent on the Venaissin from the Dauphiné, where he had been very successful. He took Caderousse, Orange, Courthézon, Bédarrides, and Chateauneuf-du-Pape, all of whose inhabitants had taken flight. He then took Sarrians and Sorgues, intending to use them as a base to attack Avignon, but when he learned that Avignon was fortified and prepared for strong resistance, he aimed instead for Carpentras. He arrived on 28 July 1562, encamped next to the aqueduct, began to lay out siege works. The inhabitants of Carpentras cut their aqueduct to keep Adrets from a water supply, and from time to time threw red soil and foul matter into the Auzon River. In the meantime Fabrice Serbelloni, the nephew of Pope Pius IV and General of the papal troops, arrived in the neighborhood, and the Huguenots were forced to retire on 3 and 4 August.[42] Next year, after the Peace of Amboise on 25 March 1563, the Huguenot forces returned, took Monteux, and advanced to Carpentras, but they were driven away with considerable losses.[43]

Other institutions[edit]

A convent of Dominican monks was founded in Carpentras in 1312. Louis de Vervins, Archbishop of Narbonne (1600–1628), had been a monk in this convent, and had become its Prior; he was a generous benefactor.[44] There was also a convent of Observant Franciscans, one of Capuchins, one of Discalced Carmelites. Of the religious orders for women, there were five convents in Carpentras: the abbey of the Cistercians of Saint Mary Magdeleine and of Saint Bernard, the monastery of the Discalced Carmelites, the Convent of the Visitation, the house of refuge called Notre-Dame de Sainte Garde, and the convent called L'Intérieur de Marie.[45] These were all liquidated by order of the French National Constituent Assembly in 1790.

A seminary was established for the diocese in 1585, in accordance with the decrees of the Council of Trent, by Bishop Jacques Sacrati. Administration and staffing of the seminary was turned over to the Jesuits by Bishop Lorenzo Buti (1691–1710).[46] The Jesuits also staffed the Collège de Carpentras, founded in 1607, where the humanities and philosophy were taught.[47]

A hospital for the sick already existed in Carpentras in the time when the Counts of Toulouse owned the Comtat Venaissin.[48] Bishop Joseph-Dominique d'Inguimbert (1735 – 1757) was responsible for the building of the new hospital in Carpentras, beginning in 1750. The hospital was famous for the magnificence of its buildings and for the size of its endowment, one of the largest in France. This hospices became the major depository of abandoned children in the department, due in part to the convenience offered by the regular market at Carpentras. In January 1807 the number of children at Carpentras was 107.[49]

End of the diocese[edit]

Former episcopal palace, Palais de Justice

In 1790 the National Constituent Assembly decided to bring the French church under the control of the State. Civil government of the provinces was to be reorganized into new units called 'départements', originally intended to be 83 or 84 in number. The dioceses of the Roman Catholic Church were to be reduced in number, to coincide as much as possible with the new departments. Since there were more than 130 bishoprics at the time of the Revolution, more than fifty dioceses needed to be suppressed and their territories consolidated. Carpentras was one of those which were suppressed, by the French government, not by the canonical authority of the papacy.[50] Its territory was assigned by the government to the new "Diocese of Vaucluse", with its headquarters at Avignon. All monasteries, convents and religious orders in France were dissolved, and their members were released from their vows by order of the National Constituent Assembly (which action was uncanonical); their property was confiscated "for the public good", and sold to pay the bills of the French government.[51] Cathedral Chapters were also dissolved.[52]

In accordance with the Concordat of 1801, Carpentras ceased to be a residential diocese on 29 November 1801, and its territory was canonically incorporated into that of the Diocese of Avignon by virtue of a papal bull.[53] The former episcopal palace, which had been built by Cardinal Bichi in the 1640s,[54] became the Palace of Justice and prison. The cloisters between the palace and the cathedral were demolished in 1829,[55] though traces of the arches and vaulting can be seen on the north wall of the cathedral.

In 1877, the title of bishop of Carpentras, along with those of other ancient sees, was added to that of the archbishops of Avignon and remained so until 2009. In January 2009 Pope Benedict XVI revived the title (though not the actual diocese) of Carpentras as a titular see.[56] The current titular Bishop of Carpentras is Emmanuel Marie Anne Alain Gobilliard, Auxiliary Bishop of Lyon.[57]

Bishops[edit]

to 1100[edit]

  • (c. 439–c. 451) Constantianus[58]
  • (c. 517–c. 529) Julianus[59]
  • (c. 530– before 541) Siffredus (Siffrein)[60]
  • (c. 541– after 552) Clematius, Bishop of Carpentras and Venasque[61]
  • (c. 573) Tetradius[62]
  • (c. 584 – 604) Boethius[63]
  • (c. 614) Ambrosius[64]
  • (c. 650) Licerius[65]
...
...
  • (c. 948) Ayrardus[67]
...
  • (c. 992 – after 1 April 1013) Stephanus, Bishop of Venasque[68]
...
  • (c. 1040, 1044, 1056?) Franco[69]
  • (c.1056 – c. 1058) Julius[70]
...
  • (c. 1068) Guillelmus[71]
...

from 1100 to 1500[edit]

  • (c. 1107 – c. 1120) Gaufredus[72]
  • (c. 1121 – 1142) Gaspardus[73]
  • (1142 – after 1165) Raimundus[74]
 ? Guillaume de Risole[75]
  • ( ? – 1178) Petrus[76]
? Innocent II[77]
? Andreas[78]
  • (c. 1178 – c.1195) Raimbaudus[79]
  • (c. 1195 – c. 1211) Gaufridus[80]
  • (c. 1211 – c. 1218) Guillaume de Bordellis[81]
  • (c. 1218 – 1228) Isnardus[82]
  • (c. 1229 – 1230) Bertrandus[83]
  • (1230 – 1263) Guillelmus Beroaldi[84]
  • (1263 – 1275) Raimundus de Barjols[85]
  • (1275 – 1279) Pierre de Rostaing[86]
  • (1280 – ? ) Raimundus de Mazan[87]
  • (1294 – 1317) Berengarius de Mazan[88]
  • (1318 – c. 1331) Otho (Eudes)[89]
  • (1332 – 1347) Hugo (Hugues)[90]
  • (1347 – 1357) Guaffredus (Geoffroy)[91]
  • (1357 – 1371) Jean Roger[92]
  • (1371 – 1376) Guillaume l'Estrange[93]
  • (1376 – 1397) Pierre Laplotte (Laplon)[94]
  • (1397 – 1406) Pope Benedict XIII (Pedro de Luna)[95]
(1397 – after August 1402) Jean Filheti (Administrator)[96]
  • (1406 – 1423) Cardinal Ludovico Fieschi (Administrator)[97]
  • (1424 – 1425) Jacques de Camplon[98]
  • (1426 – 1446) Sagax dei Conti[99]
  • (1446 – 1449) Guillaume Soibert[100]
  • (1449 – 1452) Georges d'Ornos[101]
  • (1452 – 1471) Michel Anglici[102]
  • (1471 – 1472) Giuliano della Rovere (Administrator) (future Pope Julius II)[103]
  • (1472 – 1481) Federico di Saluzzo (Administrator)[104]
  • (1483 – 1517) Pierre de Valletariis[105]

from 1500 to 1800[edit]

(1661 – 1665) Sede vacante[114]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Duchesne, p. 272, no. 1.
  2. ^ Siffredus, according to legend, derived from a family in Campania, but his name points to northern origins. De Terris, p. 59, note 1, pointing out that the documents begin in the 8th or 9th century. Vincenzio Barrali (1613). Chronologia sanctorum et aliorum virorum illustrium ac abbatum sacrae insulae Lerinensis. Tomus II. Lyon: Rigaud. pp. 130–143.
  3. ^ The early 5th-century Notitia Galliarum does not mention Carpentras among the cities of the area, perhaps an indication of its decay at the time; cf. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Chronica minora, I, p. 559. Negative evidence, however, is always problematical.
  4. ^ De Terris, Les Evêques de Carpentras. Etude historique, chapter II.
  5. ^ Liabestres, pp. 13-14.
  6. ^ Gallia christiana I, Instrumenta, p. 148: in ecclesia Sancti Petri Apostoli sedis Carpentoratensium sive Vendascensium.
  7. ^ A survey of the evidence is given by Loeb, pp. 36-38.
  8. ^ Karl Joseph von Hefele (1895). William R. Clark, ed. A History of the Councils of the Church, from the Original Documents. By the Right Rev. Charles Joseph Hefele ... Volume IV. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. pp. 76, 82–83, 107, 111.
  9. ^ Bardinet (1880), pp. 7-9
  10. ^ Loeb, pp. 37-38. S. Kahn, in: Adler & Singer (1907), Jewish Encyclopedia, p. 589 column 1.
  11. ^ Loeb, p. 39.
  12. ^ Collier, p. 20. Bardinet (1880), p. 9.
  13. ^ Loeb, pp. 40-46. The details of the provisions are listed by S. Kahn, p. 589 column 2.
  14. ^ Malcolm Barber, "The Pastoureaux of 1320," Journal of Ecclesiastical History Volume 32 (2) (April 1981), pp. 143-166.
  15. ^ Loeb, pp. 49-53. In 1343 only 12 heads of families are known, which is down from a figure of 300 heads of families before the expulsion.
  16. ^ Loeb, pp. 46-48. S. Kahn, p. 589 column 2.
  17. ^ Kahn, p. 590.
  18. ^ It was his successor Pope John XXII who settled definitively at Avignon.
  19. ^ Joëlle Rollo-Koster (2008). Raiding Saint Peter: Empty Sees, Violence, and the Initiation of the Great Western Schism (1378). Boston-Leiden: Brill. pp. 143, and n. 102. ISBN 90-04-16560-6. Expilly, p. 88 column 1.
  20. ^ For example, Clement V was there in January and February of 1314: Regestum Clementis papae V... nunc primum editum cura et studio monachorum ordinis S. Benedicti... (in Latin). Rome: Typographia vaticana. 1888. p. 40.
  21. ^ Séguin de Pazzis, pp. 117-118.
  22. ^ Expilly, p. 104.
  23. ^ Martin Souchon, Die Papstwahlen von Bonifaz VIII bis Urban VI (Braunschweig: Benno Goeritz 1888) 35-45.
  24. ^ Mollat, G. (1910). "L'election du pape Jean XXII". Revue d'histoire et de l'eglise de France. 1: 34–49 and 147–166.
  25. ^ Mouliérac-Lamoureux, Rose Léone (1977). Le Comtat Venaissin pontifical: 1229-1791 (in French). Vedène: Comptoir Général du Livre Occitan. pp. 38–39.
  26. ^ Expilly, p. 89 column 1. Félix Digonnet (1907). Le Palais des papes d'Avignon (in French). Avignon: F. Seguin. pp. 361–367.
  27. ^ Robert de Hesseln (1771). Dictionnaire universel de la France: contenant la description géographique et historique ... ensemble l'Abrége de l'histoire de France ... (in French). Tome second. Paris: Desaint. p. 113. The foundation charter of the Chapter speaks of the Church of Saint Peter the Apostle: Gallia christiana I, Instrumenta, p. 148: in ecclesia Sancti Petri Apostoli sedis Carpentoratensium sive Vendascensium.
  28. ^ E. Andreoli, Monographie de l'église cathédrale Saint-Siffrein de Carpentras, p. 62.
  29. ^ De Terris, pp. 188-189, quoting the full text of the inscription.
  30. ^ De Terris, p. 206, says the consecration took place in 1520.
  31. ^ The story has the approbation of Saint Ambrose of Milan. Andreoli, p. 202.
  32. ^ Expilly, pp. 99-100.
  33. ^ Andreoli, pp. 198-233. Joe Nickell (2007). Relics of the Christ. University Press of Kentucky. p. 94. ISBN 0-8131-7212-8., who points out that there are also nails in Rome, in Paris, in Trier (presented by Helena herself), in Vienna, in Florence, in Milan, in Monza, at the bottom of the Adriatic, and in some twenty-two other places. On the seals, from the 13th century, see: Esquilly, p. 99.
  34. ^ De Hesseln, p. 113. Andreoli, pp. 34-35.
  35. ^ Hesseln, p. 113. Expilly, p. 100 column 2.
  36. ^ Ole J. Benedictow (2004). The Black Death, 1346-1353: The Complete History. Woodbridge, Suffolk UK: Boydell Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-84383-214-0.
  37. ^ De Terris, pp. 185-186. H. Fages (1901). Histoire de Saint Vincent Ferrier (in French). Louvain: A. Uystpruyst. pp. 122–123.
  38. ^ Expilly, p. 88 column 2.
  39. ^ Eugène Arnaud (1884). Histoire des protestants de Provence: du comtat Venaissin et de la principauté d'Orange, avec une carte de l'ancienne Provence (in French). Volume second. Paris: Grassart. pp. 6–10.
  40. ^ Claudius Baduel (1544). De officio et munere eorum, qui juventutem erudiendam suscipiunt (in Latin). Lyon: Seb. Gryphius.
  41. ^ Arnaud, p. 9.
  42. ^ Arnaud, pp. 24-37.
  43. ^ Expilly, pp. 89-90.
  44. ^ Expilly, p. 101 column 1.
  45. ^ De Hesseln, p. 114.
  46. ^ Expilly, pp. 101-102.
  47. ^ De Hesseln, p. 114.
  48. ^ Expilly, p. 103.
  49. ^ Séguin de Pazzis, pp. 200-201; 207-208.
  50. ^ Louis Marie Prudhomme (1793). La République française en quatre-vingt-quatre départements, dictionnaire géographique et méthodique (in French). Paris: Chez l'éditeur, rue des Marais. pp. 7–11.
  51. ^ Pierre Brizon (1904). L'église et la révolution française des Cahiers de 1789 au Concordat (in French). Paris: Pages libres. pp. 27–30.
  52. ^ Philippe Bourdin, "Collégiales et chapitres cathédraux au crible de l'opinion et de la Révolution," Annales historiques de la Révolution française no. 331 (janvier/mars 2003), 29-55, at 29-30, 52-53.
  53. ^ Bull Qui Christi Domini, in Bullarii romani continuatio, Vol. XI, Roma 1845, pp. 245–249
  54. ^ Séguin de Pazzis, p. 59.
  55. ^ Andreoli, p. 41.
  56. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 859
  57. ^ David M. Cheney, Catholic-Hierarchy: Emmanuel Marie Anne Alain Gobilliard. Retrieved: 2016-07-22[self-published source]
  58. ^ Bishop Constantianus was represented at the Council of Riez in 439, of Orange in 441, and of Vaison in 442. Pope Leo III also quotes his name in a letter written in 451. Duchesne, p. 272, no. 1. Carolus Munier, Concilia Galliae, A. 314 – A. 506 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), pp. 72, 87, 102, 107 and 109.
  59. ^ Bishop Julianus attended the Council of Epaone (517), the Council of Lyon (held between 518 and 523), and attended local synods in Arles (June 524), Carpentras (November 527), and Orange (July 529). Duchesne, p. 272, no. 2. Carolus De Clercq, Concilia Galliae, A. 511 – A. 695 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), pp. 36, 40-41, 45-46, 49, 51, 64-65.
  60. ^ According to his legend, Siffredus had been a monk at Lerins during the time when Caesarius of Arles had been abbot. The legend also says that Siffredus was consecrated bishop by Caesarius when he was about thirty years of age. He cannot have been consecrated until after the death of Bishop Julianus, which happened after July 529. That would mean, since Caesarius left Lerins to become Bishop of Arles in 502, that Siffredus became a monk at Lerins when he was less than three years old. The notion that he died at an advanced age seems incongruent as well, as he would have been only c. 41 at his death. The legendary details and dates, are completely unreliable. Duchesne, p. 272 note 4.
  61. ^ At a national council held at Orléans in 541, Clematius subscribed the acts as Bishop of Carpentras and Venasque (episcopus civitatis Carpentoratensium et Vindascensium), though in the council of Orléans of 549 he signed only as Bishop of Carpentras. He was also present at the council of Paris in 552. Duchesne, p. 273, no. 4. De Clercq, pp. 144, 159, 168.
  62. ^ Bishop Tetradius attended the Council of Paris in September 573, as episcopus ecclesiae Venduascensis. Duchesne, p. 273, no. 5. De Clercq, p. 213, 215-217.
  63. ^ Bishop Boethius attended the Council of Valence in 584 (or 583/585)—though his name does not appear among the bishops who attended the Council of Lyon in May 583. He attended the Council of Mâcon in 585. His tombstone was found near Venasque, and is dated 604. Duchesne, p. 273 no. 6. De Clercq, pp. 236, 249.
  64. ^ Bishop Ambrosius subscribed at the Council of Paris in 614 as ex civitate Vindesca Ambrosius episcopus. Duchesne, p. 273 no. 7. De Clercq, p. 281.
  65. ^ Bishop Licerius attended the Council of Chalon-sur-Saône, which was held at some point between 647 and 653, and signed as Licerius episcopus ecclesie Vindauscensis. Duchesne, p. 273 no. 8. De Clercq, p. 309. After Licerius, the Gallia christiana Tomus I lists sixteen bishops, whose names are derived from a forged document of the tenth century: Duchesne, p. 273 note 3.
  66. ^ Amatus was present at the Council of Narbonne in 788. Duchesne, p. 273 no. 9.
  67. ^ Ayrardus founded the Chapter, composed of sixteen Canons, on 1 March 982. Gallia christiana I, pp. 899-900.
  68. ^ De Terris, p. 96, quotes in French translation the text of Étienne's oath of allegiance to the Church of Arles, his Metropolitan, found in Gallia christiana I, p. 900. He was also a witness to a donation made by Guillaume Count (Marchio) of Provence in 992. Honoré Bouche (1664). La Chorographie ou Description de Provence, et l'histoire Chronologique du mesme pays (in French). Tome II. Aix: Par Charles David. p. 47. Bishop Stephanus was also one of the recipients of a letter from Pope Benedict VIII (1012-1024) in favor of the Abbey of Cluny. Bullarium sacris ordini Cluniacensis complectens plurima privilegia etc... (in Latin). Lugduni (Lyon): Antonius Jullieron. 1680. p. 7. A considerable number of Benedict VIII's bulls are known to be forgeries, including at least two from Cluny.
  69. ^ Franco was one of the 23 prelates who assisted Pope Benedict IX in the consecration of the church of Saint-Victor-de-Marseille on 15 October 1040. He was present at the Council of S. Aegidius (S. Gilles), which may have taken place in 1056 or in 1042. Philippe Labbe (1730). Sacrosancta concilia ad regiam editionem exacta quae olim quarta parte prodiit auctior studio P. Labbei, & G. Cossartii ... (in Latin). Tomus duodecimus (12). Venice: Apud S. Coleti, et J.B. Albrizzi & Hieron. p. 11. Gallia christiana I, p. 901, and Instrumenta, p. 110. De Terris, p. 97. Gams, p. 530 column 1.
  70. ^ Julius' presence at a Council of Avignon, held in 1058 or 1060, depends on 'missing' manuscripts, details of which were supplied by Polycarp de la Rivière to Honoratus Bucheus. J.D. Mansi (ed.) Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XIX (Venice 1774), pp. 929-930. Gallia christiana I, p. 901. De Terris, p. 97. Gams, p. 530 column 1.
  71. ^ Bishop Guillelmus is attested, along with Bishop Guillelmus of Toulon, consecrating the church at the Castle of Paracel (diocese of Aix) in 1068. Gallia christiana I, p. 901. De Terris, pp. 97-99. Gams, p. 530 column 1.
  72. ^ Gaufredus (Geoffroy) granted the transfer of the Priory of Flassans to the Abbey of S. Ruf on 3 August 1107. He is mentioned as petitioner in a bull of Pope Calixtus II on 20 April 1120. Gallia christiana I, p. 901. De Terris, p. 99. Gams, p. 530 column 1.
  73. ^ Gaspardus (Artaldus) was appointed to an arbitration committee by Pope Calixtus II (1119–1124). Gallia christiana I, p. 902. De Terris, pp. 101-102. Gams, p. 530 column 1.
  74. ^ On 12 March 1142 Bishop Raimundus witnessed a charter of donation. In 1150 Bishop Raimundus acted as arbitrator in a dispute between the Bishop of Orange and his Canons. In 1158 he witnessed the oath taken by the Provost of Marseille to his bishop. In 1165 he arbitrated between the Bishop of Marseille and the Vicomte de Marseille. Gallia christiana I, p. 902. De Terris, pp. 101-102.
  75. ^ Guillaume de Risole is said to have signed a charter of October 1153. The evidence has been doubted, being contrary to known facts. Gallia christiana I, p. 902. De Terris, p. 102. Gams, p. 530 column 1.
  76. ^ Gallia christiana I, p. 902. De Terris, pp. 103-104.
  77. ^ Innocent II: There are no documents. Gallia christiana I excludes him. De Terris, p. 102-103. Gams, p. 530 column 1.
  78. ^ Andreas: There are no documents. Gallia christiana I excludes him. Others give him a date of 1200 or 1205, which are impossible. De Terris, p. 103. Gams, p. 530 column 1.
  79. ^ Gallia christiana I, pp. 902-903. De Terris, p. 106.
  80. ^ Geoffroy de Garosse is first mentioned in a charter of 30 July 1195. He witnessed a charter of 12 February 1211. Gallia christiana I, p. 903. De Terris, pp. 106-110.
  81. ^ Gallia christiana I, p. 903. De Terris, p. 111. Eubel, I, p. 167.
  82. ^ Isnard was Provost of the Cathedral Chapter, and Coadjutor of Bishop Guillaume. Gallia christiana I, p. 903. De Terris, pp. 111-116. Eubel, I, p. 167.
  83. ^ Gallia christiana I, pp. 903-904. De Terris, pp. 116-117. Eubel, I, p. 167.
  84. ^ According to the Pontificium Carpentoractense Guillaume was elected on 18 November 1230. Ca. 1240 Bishop Guillaume was compelled by financial necessity to reduce the number of Canons in the Cathedral Chapter from sixteen to twelve. He took part in the Council of Béziers in April 1243, in the Council of Valence in December 1248, and in the provincial synod of Arles in 1251. On 22 May 1257 Bishop Guillaume took part in a boundary dispute at Mazan, and in other transactions in 1258 and 1260. De Terris, pp. 117-Eubel, I, p. 167.
  85. ^ Bishop Raimundus was already in office on 23 July 1263, when he reapproved the statutes of the Chapter of Carpentras. He died in February 1275. De Terris, pp. 127-134. Eubel, I, p. 167.
  86. ^ Bishop Pierre attended the Council of Avignon on 17 May 1279. De Terris, pp. 135-138. Eubel, I, p. 167.
  87. ^ Raimundus: De Terris, pp. 139-144. Eubel, I, p. 168.
  88. ^ De Terris identifies the bishop as Berengarius Forneri, Canon of Carpentras, Prior of Mazan. Berengarius was consecrated on 25 June 1294. He created the office of Archdeacon, and gave him a prebend in the Cathedral Chapter; the first incumbent was Hugues Forneri. De Terris, pp. 145-Eubel, I, p. 168.
  89. ^ Bishop Eudes was appointed by Pope John XXII on 2 October 1318. After extensive negotiation with John XXII through Cardinals Berenger Fredoli and Guillaume of Palestrina, Bishop Eudes surrendered the temporal rights over the city of Carpentras to the Pope, in exchange for seigneural rights over several minor fiefs. The agreement was formalized in the papal Bull of 12 April 1320. In 1324 the Pope added the Priory of Mazan to the holdings of the bishops of Carpentras. Bishop Otho (Eudes) attended the Council of Saint-Ruf (Avignon) in 1326. Gallia christiana I, p. 906. De Terris, pp. 153-157. Eubel, I, p. 168.
  90. ^ Hugues de Lésignan (d'Engoulême) was appointed by Pope John XXII on 4 February 1332. He made his Last Will and Testament on 8 February 1347. Gallia christiana I, p. 906. De Terris, pp. 158-161. Eubel, I, p. 168.
  91. ^ Geoffroy de Vairols was named bishop on 19 February 1347 by Pope Clement VI. In 1348 Pope Clement VI made him a Nuncio to negotiate the marriage of the Dauphin Humbert with Blanche of Savoy. Bishop Geoffroy was transferred to the diocese of Carcassonne on 18 January 1357. Gallia christiana I, pp. 906-907. De Terris, pp. 162-164. Eubel, I, pp. 166, 168.
  92. ^ From 1357 to 1371, the Bishop of Carpentras was Jean Roger, the brother of Cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort; both were nephews of Pope Clement VI. Under Clement VI and Bishop Jean Roger the walls of Carpentras were constructed, beginning in 1356 and finishing in 1377. As soon as Pierre Roger was elected pope, on 30 December 1370, Bishop Jean Roger was transferred to the more prestigious See of Auch. De Terris, pp. 167; 170-171. The date of transfer was 27 July 1371. He became Archbishop of Narbonne in 1375.
  93. ^ Guillaume l'Estrange, Dean of the Cathedral Chapter of Saintes, was appointed bishop of Carpentras by Pope Gregory XI on 4 July 1371. In 1375 he was assigned to a peace mission between Charles V of France and Edward III of England, which produced a truce. He was named Archbishop of Rouen on 22 December 1375. In 1377 he accompanied Gregory XI on his journey to Rome, and was named an executor in the Pope's Last Will and Testament. Jean Froissart (1824). J. A. Buchon, ed. Chroniques de Froissart... (in French). Tome VI. Paris: Verdière. p. 98. De Terris, pp. 174-176. Eubel, I, pp. 168, 426.
  94. ^ Laplon (or Laplotte) was appointed bishop of Carpentras by Gregory XI on 8 January 1376. He was transferred to the diocese of Saint-Pons-de-Thomières on 5 November 1397. He died in 1398. De Terris, pp. 176-181. Eubel, I, pp. 168, with note 6; 406.
  95. ^ After Filheti, from 1403 Benedict XIII ruled Carpentras through a Vicar-General, Aldebert de Moreriis. De Terris, p. 188.
  96. ^ Jean Filheti was a nephew of the Cardinal of Amiens, Jean de Lagrange. He had already been named Bishop of Apt on 17 October 1390, and continued to hold that office until his death on 26 June 1410. De Terris, pp. 183-186. Eubel, I, p. 96.
  97. ^ Ludovico de Fieschi had been made a cardinal by Urban VI (Roman Obedience), but he renounced his allegiance to Innocent VII (Roman Obedience) in 1404 for Benedict XIII of the Avignon Obedience; Benedict appointed Fieschi bishop of Carpentras on 31 October 1406. He was never consecrated a bishop, and therefore could only be Apostolic Administrator. Fieschi renounced the obedience of Benedict XIII in 1409 and joined Alexander V. He died on 3 April 1423. Eubel, I, p. 25 no. 42; 168.
  98. ^ Camplon had been Bishop of Spoleto (1419–1424). He was appointed bishop of Carpentras by Pope Martin V on 7 July 1424, and in August he was named Rector of the Comtat Venaissin as well. He died in Rome on 11 November 1425, and was buried in Santa Maria Maggiore. De Terris, pp. 196-197. Eubel, I, pp. 168, 461.
  99. ^ Sagax dei Conti had previously been Bishop of Cava (1419–1426). He spent most of his years as Bishop of Carpentras in Italy, delegating his authority to the Bishop of Cavaillon. Sagax was transferred to the diocese of Spoleto on 30 May 1446. He died in 1448. De Terris, pp. 198-199 (erroneously stating that the See was vacant for two years before the appointment of Sagax). Eubel, I, pp. 168, 179; II, pp. 119, 241.
  100. ^ Soibert was transferred to Carpentras from the diocese of Uzès on 30 May 1446 by Pope Eugene IV. Eubel, II, p. 119.
  101. ^ Ornos had been bishop of Vich, but had followed the Council of Basel, and accepted a cardinalate from Antipope Felix V, for which he was deposed in 1445. He wrote his Last Will and Testament on 4 November 1452, and died shortly thereafter. De Terris, pp. 205-207. Eubel, II, pp. 9 no. 8; 168.
  102. ^ Michel was an Apostolic Subdeacon. He was consecrated in Rome on 27 November 1452. He participated in the Council of Avignon in 1456. Due to illness he sent in his resignation to the Pope on 28 March 1471, and signed his Last Will and Testament on 26 August. He died on 7 September 1471. De Terris, pp. 208-211. Eubel, II, p. 168.
  103. ^ The future Pope Julius II, Giuliano was appointed Bishop of Carpentras on 11 October 1471 by his uncle Pope Sixtus IV at the age of 27. On 16 December 1471 he was made a cardinal, and on 31 January 1472 he was transferred to the diocese of Lausanne. Eubel, II, p. 16. He therefore had held the diocese of Carpentras for a little over three months, just long enough to collect a pay check. Cardinal Giuliano was not consecrated a bishop until 1481, and should therefore be considered an Administrator. See: David M. Cheney, Catholic-Hierarchy: Pope Julius II. Retrieved: 2016-07-21[self-published source] and Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere) [Catholic-Hierarchy].
  104. ^ From 21 January 1472, Carpentras was governed by an Administrator, Msgr. Federico di Saluzzo, the son of the Marquis of Saluzzo. Gallia christiana I, p. 910. Eubel, II, pp. 119 and 173. The dates given by Gams, p. 530, are obsolete.
  105. ^ Pierre was the nephew of Pope Sixtus IV. He was appointed bishop of Carpentras on 24 September 1483 (or 8 October 1483) at the age of 22. In the meantime the Cathedral Chapter had attempted to elect a fellow Canon, Jacques Alberti as bishop, but on 16 October the Pope quashed the election. Pierre de Valletariis was not consecrated until 1486. In 1513 Pope Leo X named him Vice-Legate and Rector of the Comtat Venaissin. He died in Rome at the beginning of 1517. De Terris, pp. 208-211. Eubel, II, p. 168.
  106. ^ Jacopo Sadoleto had been the private secretary of Pope Leo X and Pope Clement VII, and one of the great humanists of the sixteenth century: Richard M. Douglas (1959). Jacopo Sadoleto, 1477-1547: Humanist and Reformer. Cambridge MA USA: Harvard University Press. He was Bishop of Carpentras from 24 April 1517 until he retired in 1535, resigning the See in favor of his nephew, Paolo, his Coadjutor. As soon as Leo X died in 1521, Jacopo betook himself to his diocese, but he was recalled to Rome by Clement VII shortly after his accession in 1523. Jacopo visited the diocese again in 1524, and returned again in April 1527, just in time to miss the Sack of Rome; he stayed for two years:Kenneth Gouwens (1998). "Chapter four". Remembering the Renaissance: Humanist Narratives of the Sack of Rome. Boston-Leiden: Brill. pp. 103–142. ISBN 90-04-10969-2. Sadoleto was named a cardinal by Pope Paul III on 22 December 1536, with the title of Cardinal Priest of San Callisto and then Santa Balbina. He died on 19 October 1547, at the age of seventy. Gallia christiana I (1715), p. 910. Eubel, III, pp. 24 and 154.
  107. ^ Paolo Sadoleto was named Coadjutor to his uncle on 14 February 1535. He was Rector of the Comtat Venaissin from 1541 to 1547. He succeeded to the episcopal throne on the death of his uncle on 19 October 1547, and took possession on 17 November 1547. In 1552 Pope Julius III offered him the post of Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, which he held until October 1554. He was again named Rector of the Comtat in 1560, and a third time in 1568. He died on 26 February 1572. Eubel, III, p. 154 with notes 4 and 5.
  108. ^ A native of Ferrara, Sacrati was a nephew of Cardinal Sadoleto and cousin of his predecessor. His appointment to Carpentras was approved in Consistory on 2 June 1572 by Pope Gregory XIII. In 1576 he was named Rector of the Comtat Venaissin, and again in 1581, and yet again in 1588. In 1581 he founded a seminary, in accordance with the decrees of the Council of Trent. In 1588 he created the dignity of Penitentiary in the Cathedral Chapter. He signed his Last Will and Testament on 2 July 1592, and died on 1 January 1593. De Terris, pp. 242-247. Eubel, III, p. 154.
  109. ^ Francesco was named Coadjutor to his predecessor by Pope Innocent IX in 1591, but the Pope died before the bulls were signed. Pope Clement VIII, however, did sign the bulls on 9 February 1592, giving Francesco the titular bishopric of Nicomedia. He had not yet arrived in Carpentras when Bishop Sacrati died on 1 January 1593. Sadoleto died in Rome on 23 June 1596. De Terris, pp. 248-249.Gauchat, p. 136 note 2.
  110. ^ Capponi was of Florentine origin and a relative of Cardinal Luigi Capponi, Archbishop of Ravenna. He died in Rome on 22 March 1622. De Terris, pp. 250-257. Gauchat, p. 136 with note 3.
  111. ^ Cosimo de' Bardi was a Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law). He was appointed Bishop of Carpentras in Consistory by Pope Paul V on 27 January 1616. Bardi was named Archbishop of Florence on 9 September 1630. De Terris, pp. 258-265. Gauchat, p. 136 with note 4.
  112. ^ Bichi had previously been Bishop of Isola (1628–1630). He was serving as Papal Nuncio to France when he was named Bishop of Carpentras on 9 September 1630. Bichi was named a cardinal by Pope Urban VIII on 28 November 1633. In 1656, unable to carry out his duties, he was granted a Coadjutor. He died on 25 May 1657. Gauchat, IV, pp. 136 with note 5; 210
  113. ^ Born at Avignon in 1618, Fortia had previously been Bishop of Cavaillon (1646–1656); he was consecrated bishop in Rome on 23 September 1646 by Cardinal Pierluigi Carafa (Senior). He was named Coadjutor of Cardinal Bichi at Carpentras on 26 June 1656, and succeeded to the diocese on 25 May 1657. He died on 26 April 1661 at the age of 43. De Terris, pp. 273-279. Gauchat, pp. 136 with note 6; 143 with note 6.
  114. ^ De Terris, p. 280.
  115. ^ Lascaris was from Nice, a member of the house of Vintimille. He was a Referendary of the Tribunal of the Two Signatures. In 1659 he was named Vice-Legate of Avignon. On 26 July 1663, due to an incident of violence in Rome in June 1662, King Louis XIV had the Parliament of Provence order the seizure of the Comtat Venaissin and the state of Avignon. Refusing to comply, Lascaris was arrested and taken to Aix. The status quo ante was restored on 20 August 1664. On 28 September 1665 Lascaris was named Bishop of Carpentras; he was consecrated in Rome by Cardinal Carlo Pio on 4 October 1665. He died on 6 December 1684. De Terris, pp. 280-288. Jean, p. 54. Gauchat, p. 136 with note 7. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 144 note 2.
  116. ^ Born at Genoa in 1630, the son of Doge Cesare Durazzo, Cardinal Durazzo had been Vice-Legate in Avignon and Nuncio in France, Spain and Portugal. He was appointed in Consistory on 10 November 1687 by Pope Innocent XI. He was transferred to the diocese of Ferrara on 27 November 1690. De Terris, pp. 289-291. Jean, p. 54. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 144 with note 3.
  117. ^ Buti was born in Rome, and was a Doctor in utroque iure (Sapienza). He had been governor of a number of Italian cities, and Vice-Legate of Ferrara. He was a voting member of the Supreme Tribunal of the Two Signatures. His appointment to Carpentras was approved in Consistory on 8 January 1691 by Pope Alexander VIII, and he was consecrated in Rome by Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi degli Altieri on 5 August 1691. He died on 22 April 1710, at the age of 72. De Terris, pp. 292-297. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 144 with note 4.
  118. ^ Abbati was born in Pesauro in 1660, and acquired a degree of Doctor in utroque iure from the University of Macerata. In 1681 he was named Auditor in the Nunciature in Portugal. In 1702 he became Rector of the Comtat Venaissin. He had previously been Bishop of Rieti (1707–1710). He was transferred to Carpentras on 21 July 1710 by Pope Clement XI. He died on 22 April 1735. De Terris, pp. 298-302. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, pp. 144 with note 5; 329 with note 4.
  119. ^ Born in Carpentras, Inguimbert originally entered the Dominican Order in 1698, and received a master's degree in theology (Paris). He embraced the stricter life of the Cistercians (as Fr. Malachy), however, and became Librarian of Cardinal Corsini and a councilor of the Holy Office; he was made titular bishop of Theodosiopolis (in the Tauric Chersonese) (1731–1735). Bishop d'Inguimbert established a scholarly library which Jean-François Delmas, the chief librarian, has called "the oldest of our municipal libraries". Known as the Bibliothèque Inguimbertine and now holding around 140,000 books, it is widely known and is now installed in the former Hôtel-Dieu. See: Thomas Wieder, "Un cabinet de curiosités à Carpentras," Le Monde des Livres, August 13, 2009. Bishop d'Inguimbert died at Carpentras on 6 September 1757. Ignace Hyacinthe J.M. d'. Olivier-Vitalis (1812). Notice historique sur la vie de Malachie d'Inguimbert, évêque de Carpentras (in French). Carpentras: Devillario-Quenin. Jean, p. 55. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, pp. 149 note 2; 401 with note 2.
  120. ^ A native of Camerino, Vignoli had been Bishop of San Severino (1746-1757). He succeeded Bishop d'Inguimbert on 12 December 1757. Bishop Vignoli served until 15 July 1776, when he was transferred to the diocese of Forlì. He died on 2 April 1782. Ritzler, Hierarchia catholica VI, p. 149, 218 and 378. De Terris, pp. 318-323.
  121. ^ Bishop Vignoli was succeeded on 16 September 1776 by Giuseppe di Beni, Conte di Gubbio: De Terris, pp. 324-329. He had obtained a doctorate in utroque iure from the University of Fano, and was consecrated on 29 September 1776 by Pope Pius VI. He served until 1791, when he was driven out by the French revolutionaries, who forcibly annexed the Comtat Venaissin to the French state. He preferred flight to Italy rather than martyrdom. He was named Administrator of the Diocese of Pesaro on 24 January 1794, and finally resigned the diocese of Carpentras at the request of Pope Pius VI as part of the reconstitution of the Church in France following the Concordat of 1801 with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte. Bishop Beni died in Pesaro on 12 January 1806. Ritzler, VI, p. 149, with n. 4.

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Coordinates: 44°03′N 5°03′E / 44.05°N 5.05°E / 44.05; 5.05