Body in white

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Body in white, partially outfitted to highlight the safety systems fitted to the vehicle.

Body in white (BIW) is the stage in automobile manufacturing in which a car body's frame has been joined together, that is before painting and before the motor, chassis sub-assemblies, or trim (glass, door locks/handles, seats, upholstery, electronics, etc.) have been integrated into the structure. Assembly involves different techniques such as welding (spot, MIG/MAG), riveting, clinching, bonding and laser brazing.

The term derives from manufacturing practices before steel unibody monocoques — when automobile bodies were made by outside firms on a separate chassis with an engine, suspension, and fenders attached.[citation needed] The manufacturers built or purchased wooden bodies (with thin, non-structural metal sheets on the outside) to bolt onto the frame. The bodies were painted white prior to the final color.[according to whom?]

A folk etymology for "body in white" is the appearance of a car body after it is dipped into a white bath of primer (undercoat paint)— despite the primer's actual gray color.[citation needed] BIW could also refer to when car bodywork would be made of timber - all timber products, furniture, etc., are considered to be "in the white" when at the stage of raw timber before finishing or varnishing.[original research?]

In car design, the "body in white"[inconsistent] phase is where the final contours of the car body are worked out, in preparation for the ordering of the expensive production stamping die. Extensive computer simulations of crash-worthiness, manufacturability, and automotive aerodynamics are required before a clay model from the design studio can be converted into a body in white ready for production.[citation needed]

Factories may offer BIW cars to racers, who then may replace up to 90% of the car with aftermarket parts,[1] and niche manufacturers like Ruf Automobile start their cars with BIWs from other makers.

Related terms[edit]

A related term in the automotive industry is "Body in black". This can refer to a car body that is formed of alternate materials such as composites rather than conventional metal;[2][3] these composite materials, such as carbon fiber,[2][3][4] are black rather than white. "Body in black" can also refer to a step in the design process in which a mock-up of a new car skin is built, in order to perform exacting measurements during the design and pre-production processes.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Insider, The Auto. "GM Performance Parts To Offer $7,000 Body-In-White New Camaro". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  2. ^ a b PlasticsToday Staff (8 March 2012). "Carbon fiber body-in-black wins design accolade". PlasticsToday. UBM indians. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Automotive composites - in touch with lighter and more flexible solutions". Axon. Axon Automotive. 1 April 2013. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Huntsman Features High-Performance Materials for Fabricating Composite Parts at CAMX 2017" (Press release). The Woodlands, Texas: Huntsman Corporation. 11 December 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  5. ^ "How Porsche ensures the quality of its products: What do the terms cubing, exterior master jig and body-in-black mean? Insights into the production process at Porsche". Porsche News. Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2018.

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