Boma, Democratic Republic of the Congo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Boma, Congo)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Boma
View of Boma in 2007
View of Boma in 2007
Boma is located in Democratic Republic of the Congo
Boma
Boma
Location in Democratic Republic of the Congo
Coordinates: 5°51′S 13°03′E / 5.850°S 13.050°E / -5.850; 13.050
CountryFlag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg Democratic Republic of the Congo
ProvinceKongo Central
Area
 • Total65 km2 (25 sq mi)
Elevation61 m (200 ft)
Population (2012)[1]
 • Total162,521
 • Density2,500/km2 (6,500/sq mi)
A stamp of the Congo Free State, used in Boma around 1900
View to the north from Boma, 1889

Boma is a port town on the Congo River, some 100 km upstream from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Kongo Central province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It had an estimated population of 162,521 in 2012.[2]

Boma was the capital city of the Congo Free State and Belgian Congo (the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo) from 1 May 1886 to 1926, when the capital was moved to Léopoldville (since renamed Kinshasa). The port handles exports of tropical timber, bananas, cacao, and palm products.

History[edit]

Boma was founded as a slaving station and entrepôt by merchants of several European countries in the 16th century.[3] Trade was chiefly in the hands of Dutch merchants, but British, French and Portuguese firms also had factories there. No European power exercised sovereignty, though claims were from time to time put forward by Portugal.

British explorer Henry Morton Stanley arrived here on 9 Aug. 1877, after crossing Africa from east to west.[4]

In 1884 the people of Boma were forced to 'grant' a protectorate of their country to the International Association of the Congo, made up of European powers.[5] In 1886 King Leopold of Belgium established the Congo Free State, designating Boma as its capital. He ran the state as his personal fiefdom for several years, nearly enslaving many Congolese with a private military, and abusing them to force rubber production. International outrage and action by the Belgian legislature resulted in the government taking over supervision of what was established as the colony of the Belgian Congo.

Boma continued as the capital of the Belgian Congo until 1926. Léopoldville, since renamed as Kinshasa, was designated as the new capital. (This territory is now the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo).

Transport[edit]

Boma lies on the north bank of the Congo River, some 100 km upstream from Muanda, where the river meets the Atlantic Ocean. The great width and depth of the river allow seagoing ships to reach Boma, which is the second-largest port of DR Congo, after Matadi. Between 1889 and 1984, the port was served by a 610 mm gauge railway line from Tshela.

People[edit]

Climate[edit]

Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as tropical wet and dry (Aw).

The highest record temperature was 41 °C (106 °F) on February 25, 1976, while the lowest record temperature was 10 °C (50 °F) on October 21, 1976.[8]

Climate data for Boma
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34
(93)
41
(106)
39
(102)
34
(93)
39
(102)
34
(93)
32
(90)
33
(91)
36
(97)
34
(93)
34
(93)
32
(90)
41
(106)
Average high °C (°F) 32.6
(90.7)
33.4
(92.1)
33.8
(92.8)
33.6
(92.5)
32
(90)
29.5
(85.1)
26.7
(80.1)
28
(82)
29.4
(84.9)
31.6
(88.9)
32.4
(90.3)
32.3
(90.1)
31.3
(88.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 28.9
(84)
29.5
(85.1)
29.8
(85.6)
29.5
(85.1)
28.4
(83.1)
26
(79)
23.5
(74.3)
24.8
(76.6)
26.2
(79.2)
28.4
(83.1)
28.8
(83.8)
28.7
(83.7)
27.7
(81.9)
Average low °C (°F) 25.3
(77.5)
25.7
(78.3)
25.8
(78.4)
25.5
(77.9)
24.9
(76.8)
22.6
(72.7)
20.3
(68.5)
21.6
(70.9)
23.1
(73.6)
25.2
(77.4)
25.3
(77.5)
25.2
(77.4)
24.2
(75.6)
Record low °C (°F) 20
(68)
19
(66)
19
(66)
19
(66)
17
(63)
14
(57)
12
(54)
13
(55)
14
(57)
10
(50)
15
(59)
18
(64)
10
(50)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 83
(3.27)
112
(4.41)
126
(4.96)
173
(6.81)
69
(2.72)
1
(0.04)
1
(0.04)
2
(0.08)
8
(0.31)
50
(1.97)
149
(5.87)
92
(3.62)
866
(34.1)
Source #1: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 10m)[9]
Source #2: Voodoo Skies for record temperatures[8]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Gazetteer". Archived from the original on 2013-02-17.
  2. ^ "World Gazetteer". Archived from the original on 2013-02-17.
  3. ^ This article incorporates text from The Modern World Encyclopædia: Illustrated (1935); out of UK copyright as of 2005.
  4. ^ Stanley, H.M., 1899, Through the Dark Continent, London: G. Newnes, Vol. One ISBN 0486256677, Vol. Two, p. 359 ISBN 0486256685
  5. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Boma". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 181. This references H. M. Stanley, The Congo and the Founding of its Free State (London, 1885).
  6. ^ Albert S. Gerard, European-language writing in sub-Saharan Africa, Volume 1, p. 164, accessed March 2010
  7. ^ "Rumba on the River". Coldrun Books. Archived from the original on 2012-04-08.
  8. ^ a b "Boma, Zaire". Voodoo Skies. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  9. ^ "Climate: Boma - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2014-02-05.

External links[edit]

Media related to Boma, Congo-Kinshasa at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 05°51′00″S 13°03′00″E / 5.85000°S 13.05000°E / -5.85000; 13.05000