Bryncoch is divided into two wards: Bryncoch North and Bryncoch South. The area is one of the most affluent parts of the county borough, with 29% and 35% of households in the Bryncoch North and Bryncoch South respectively earning more than £40,000 per year.
Historically the village of Bryncoch was centred on Main Road and a few adjacent streets, but the village expanded considerably in the 1960s with the building of the Furzeland Drive and Elias Drive developments. This area makes up the council ward of Bryncoch North, which has only one small street of social housing at Heol Pant Glas, named after a nearby farm located at the furthest northern corner of the ward. The council ward of Bryncoch South includes the distinct areas of the Rhyddings, Gilfach, Penywern, Leiros Parc, and the large social housing estate of Caewern.
There are two village primary schools: Blaenhonddan and the Bryncoch Church in Wales school. There is also a special school, Ysgol Hendre. The nearest secondary school is Dwr Y Felin Comprehensive. Many village children also attend the Welsh-language secondary Ysgol Gyfun at Ystalyfera and the Welsh-language primary school Ysgol Gymraeg Castell Nedd.
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Bryncoch was once the principal site of the Main Colliery Company, an important coal mining employer in the area up until 1928. The philanthropist Howel Gwyn MP lived, from 1854, at the now demolished Dyffryn mansion on the outskirts of the village and built the parish church of St Matthew on his estate in 1871. The renowned scientist Alfred Russel Wallace lived at Bryncoch Farm while working as a surveyor for the Great Western Railway company. He developed the theory of evolution alongside Charles Darwin.
The village has three pubs: the Dyffryn Arms to the north of Bryncoch, the Lamb and Flag on the Main Road, and the Bryncoch Inn at Ty'n yr Heol Road, the closest pub to the social housing area of Caewern. Bryncoch Rugby Club, located on Farmers Road, play in WRU Division 3 South West.
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