Musca vetustissima

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Musca vetustissima
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Muscidae
Subfamily: Muscinae
Tribe: Muscini
Genus: Musca
Species: M. vetustissima
Binomial name
Musca vetustissima
Walker, 1849

Musca vetustissima, commonly known as the Australian bush fly, is a species of fly found in Australia.[1] It is the specific fly that has given rise to the expression "Aussie salute".[2]


The bush fly is a dung fly that is closely related to the bazaar fly (M. sorbens). The adults are attracted to large mammals for fluid for nourishment and feces for oviposition.[3] A study showed that there is a low survival rate for eggs and larvae in cattle feces because of infrequent rainfall. The study also showed that parasites and predators have caused a low survival rate.[4] According to a study, the fly can spread harmful bacteria. The fly can spread the pathogens Salmonella and Shigella. Most of the bacterial populations per fly occurred in a farm environment, while an urban environment was the lowest.[5] A standard composition that contains small amounts of trimethylamine and indole, blended with large amounts of ammonium sulfate and anchovy meal, attracts the fly.[6] A wind-oriented trap has been used to catch this species.[7] The number of ovarioles in females probably have to do with how big they are. If females do not obtain enough dietary protein, the maturation of their eggs will stop.[8] The fly likes to crawl on human faces as well as on the faces of livestock. They also like to crawl on human feces as well as on the feces of livestock, though it seems that they prefer human feces. [9]

Life cycle[edit]

The fly breeds in large numbers in dung pads.[10] Larvae have been found in the feces of large mammals. The species continually breeds in subtropical Australia, and migrations help repopulate Australia and Tasmania each spring.[3] In a study, a mixture of levamisole and oxfendazole killed larvae in sheep feces.[11]

See also[edit]

Dung beetle


  1. ^ "Musca vetustissima, the Australian bush fly". Retrieved 4 April 2009.
  2. ^ Roger D. Moon (2009). "Muscid flies (Muscidae)". In Gary R. Mullen, Gary Mullen & Lance Durden. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press. pp. 268–288. ISBN 978-0-12-372500-4.
  3. ^ a b Richard Mullen, Gary; Mullen, Gary; Durden, Lance (2009). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-12-372500-4.
  4. ^ Matthiessen, J. N. (1985). "Breeding of the bush fly, Musca vetustissima Walker, in an over-wintering area during winter and spring". Austral Ecology. 10 (2): 101–104. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.1985.tb00870.x. Retrieved 2010-05-28.
  5. ^ Vriesekoop, Frank; Shaw, Rachel (7 March 2010). "The Australian bush fly (Musca vetustissima) as a potential vector in the transmission of foodborne pathogens at outdoor eateries" (PDF). Foodborne Pathog Dis. 7 (3): 275–9. doi:10.1089/fpd.2009.0366. PMID 19895260.
  6. ^ Mulla, Mir S.; Ridsdill-Smith, James T. (21 June 1985). "Chemical attractants tested against the Australian bush flyMusca vetustissima (Diptera: Muscidae)". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 12 (1): 261–270. doi:10.1007/BF01045609. Retrieved 2010-05-28.
  7. ^ Zealand, The Royal Society of New (March 1958). New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research Mar 1958. The Royal Society of New Zealand. p. 316.
  8. ^ Vogt, W. G.; Walker, J. M. (July 1987). "Potential and realised fecundity in the bush fly, Musca vetustissima under favourable and unfavourable protein-feeding regimes". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 44 (2): 115–122. doi:10.1007/BF00367618. Retrieved 2010-05-28.
  9. ^ D. Bowman, Dwight; Georgi, Jay R (2008). Georgis' Parasitology for Veterinarians. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-4160-4412-3.
  10. ^ DeBach, Paul; Rosen, David (1991). Biological control by natural enemies. CUP Archive. p. 348. ISBN 978-0-521-39191-7.
  11. ^ Wardhaugh, KG; Mahon, RJ; Axelsen, A; Rowland, MW; Wanjura, W (June 1993). "Effects of ivermectin residues in sheep dung on the development and survival of the bushfly, Musca vetustissima Walker and a scarabaeine dung beetle, Euoniticellus fulvus Goeze". Veterinary parasitology. 48 (1–4): 139–57. doi:10.1016/0304-4017(93)90151-C. PMID 8346628.