C. K. Raju

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Dr. Chandra Kant Raju (born March 7, 1954) born in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India is a computer scientist, mathematician, educator, physicist and polymath researcher.[1][2] He is affiliated with the Centre for Studies in Civilizations in New Delhi.[3] He received the Telesio Galilei Academy Award in 2010 for defining "a product of Schwartz distributions", for proposing "an interpretation of quantum mechanics, dubbed the structured-time interpretation, and a model of physical time evolution", and for noting that "Einstein made a mistake on which much of modern physics has been built" and proposing "appropriate corrections".[4][5]


Raju obtained a B.Sc. degree from the Institute of Science, Bombay (1973), a M.Sc. from the Department of Mathematics University of Mumbai, Bombay (1975), and a Ph.D. at the Indian Statistical Institute (1980).


During the early 1980s, he was a faculty member at the Department of Statistics, University of Pune. Raju was a key contributor to the first Indian supercomputer, PARAM (1988–91),[2]

Raju has also done considerable historical research, most notably claiming infinitesimal calculus was transmitted to Europe from India.[6][7][8]

Raju built on E.T. Whittaker's beliefs that Albert Einstein's theories of special and general relativity built on the earlier work of Henri Poincaré. Raju claims that they were "remarkably similar", and every aspect of special relativity was published by Poincaré in papers between 1898 and 1905. Raju goes further, saying that Einstein made a mistake that much of physics has been built on;[9] he proposes corrections to the equations,[10] and says that physics needs to go through a major reformulation.[11] He proposed that modern physics must be reformulated using functional differential equations.

Through his research, Raju has claimed that the philosophies that underlie subjects like time[12] and mathematics[13] are rooted in the theocratic needs of the Roman Catholic Church.[14]

He has authored 12 books and dozens of articles, mainly on the subjects of physics, mathematics, and the history and philosophy of science.[15]


  • Raju, C.K. (1994). Time: Towards a Consistent Theory. Kluwer Academic. ISBN 978-0-7923-3103-2. 
  • Raju, C.K. (2003). The Eleven Pictures of Time. Sage. ISBN 978-0-7619-9624-8. 
  • C.K. Raju. (2007). Cultural Foundations of Mathematics. Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-81-317-0871-2. 
  • C.K. Raju (2009). Is Science Western in Origin?. Multiversity and Citizens International. ASIN B0030EG1FQ. 


  1. ^ "Dalai Lama hosts interactive discussion on Indian Philosophy and Modern Sciences". Phayul. Nov 4, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Pisharoty, Sangeeta Barooah (2003-09-18). "Beyond the history of Time". The Hindu. Retrieved 2009-04-24. .
  3. ^ "C.K. Raju". Project for History of Indian Science Philosophy and Culture. Archived from the original on April 10, 2009. 
  4. ^ "Gold Medal Winners 2010". 
  5. ^ ""UK`s Telesio-Galilei Academy award for physicist C K Raju"". Zee News. 
  6. ^ Mathematics and Culture. Implications of philosophy and culture for contemporary mathematics. Book Review. The Hindu. Feb 12, 2008
  7. ^ José Ferreirós (2009), "Book Review: C.K. RAJU. Cultural Foundations of Mathematics: The Nature of Mathematical Proof and the Transmission of the Calculus from India to Europe in the 16th c. CE.", Philosophia Mathematica, 17 
  8. ^ D.P. Agrawal, The Kerala School, European Mathematics and Navigation 
  9. ^ C. K. Raju, Time: Towards a Consistent Theory, Kluwer Academic, 1994, Chapter 5b. The error is that the essential history-dependence of the relativistic many-body problem has been washed away by using a Taylor expansion in powers of the delay to convert a retarded functional differential equation into an ordinary differential equation.
  10. ^ C.K. Raju. Electromagnetic Time, chapter 5b, p.116-35 in Raju, C.K. (1994). Time: Towards a Consistent Theory. Kluwer Academic. ISBN 978-0-7923-3103-2. 
  11. ^ See Raju, C.K. (2003). The Eleven Pictures of Time. Sage. ISBN 978-0-7619-9624-8.  p.298-299.
  12. ^ Review of The Eleven Pictures of Time in Time and Society, London, 13(2), September, 2004, pp. 405-7
  13. ^ "Cultural Foundations of Mathematics" (PDF), Ghadar Jari Hai, 2 (1), 2007  Book Review
  14. ^ Raju, C.K. "Towards Equity in Mathematics Education 1. Goodbye Euclid!", Bharatiya Samajik Chintan, Indian Academy of Social Science. pp. 255-264. 2009.[1]
  15. ^ Education, Positions held and Society memberships, Institutions, ckraju.net

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