C. K. Raju

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Chandrakant Raju (born 7 March 1954) is an Indian computer scientist, mathematician, educator, physicist and polymath.[1][2] He received the Telesio Galilei Academy Award in 2010 for defining a product of Schwartz distributions, for proposing an interpretation of quantum mechanics, dubbed the structured-time interpretation, and a model of physical time evolution, and for proposing the use of functional differential equations in physics.[3][4]

Early life and education[edit]

Raju was born on 7 March 1954 in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India. He obtained a B.Sc. degree from the Institute of Science, Bombay (1973), an M.Sc. from the Department of Mathematics University of Mumbai, Bombay (1975), and a Ph.D. at the Indian Statistical Institute (1980).


During the early 1980s, he was a faculty member at the Department of Statistics, University of Pune. Raju was a key contributor to the first Indian supercomputer, PARAM (1988–91),[2]

Raju has also done considerable historical research, most notably claiming infinitesimal calculus was transmitted to Europe from India.[5][6][7]

Raju built on E.T. Whittaker's beliefs that Albert Einstein's theories of special and general relativity built on the earlier work of Henri Poincaré. Raju claims that they were "remarkably similar", and every aspect of special relativity was published by Poincaré in papers between 1898 and 1905. Raju goes further, saying that Einstein's failure to recognise the need for functional differential equations constitute a mistake that underlies subsequent relativistic physics.[8] He proposes that relativistic physics must be reformulated using functional differential equations. [9] [10]

Through his research, Raju has claimed that the Western philosophy of science, including its aspects that pertain to time [11] and the nature of mathematical proof[12] are rooted in the theocratic needs of the Roman Catholic Church.[13]

He has authored 12 books and dozens of articles, mainly on the subjects of physics, mathematics, and the history and philosophy of science.[14]


  • Raju, C.K. (1994). Time: Towards a Consistent Theory. Kluwer Academic. ISBN 978-0-7923-3103-2.
  • Raju, C.K. (2003). The Eleven Pictures of Time. Sage. ISBN 978-0-7619-9624-8.
  • C.K. Raju. (2007). Cultural Foundations of Mathematics: The nature of mathematical proof and the transmission of the calculus from India to Europe in the 16th c. CE. Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-81-317-0871-2.
  • C.K. Raju (2009). Is Science Western in Origin?. Multiversity and Citizens International. ASIN B0030EG1FQ.
  • C.K. Raju (2013). Euclid and Jesus: How and why the church changed mathematics and Christianity across two religious wars. Multiversity and Citizens International. ISBN 978-983-3046-17-1.


  1. ^ "Dalai Lama hosts interactive discussion on Indian Philosophy and Modern Sciences". Phayul. 4 November 2016.
  2. ^ a b Pisharoty, Sangeeta Barooah (18 September 2003). "Beyond the history of Time". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 August 2004. Retrieved 24 April 2009..
  3. ^ "Gold Medal Winners 2010".
  4. ^ "UK's Telesio-Galilei Academy award for physicist C K Raju". Zee News.
  5. ^ Mathematics and Culture. Implications of philosophy and culture for contemporary mathematics. Book Review. The Hindu. 12 February 2008
  6. ^ José Ferreirós (2009), "Book Review: C.K. RAJU. Cultural Foundations of Mathematics: The Nature of Mathematical Proof and the Transmission of the Calculus from India to Europe in the 16th c. CE.", Philosophia Mathematica, 17, archived from the original on 15 April 2013
  7. ^ D.P. Agrawal, The Kerala School, European Mathematics and Navigation
  8. ^ C. K. Raju, Time: Towards a Consistent Theory, Kluwer Academic, 1994, Chapter 5b. The error is that the essential history-dependence of the relativistic many-body problem has been washed away by using a Taylor expansion in powers of the delay to convert a retarded functional differential equation into an ordinary differential equation.
  9. ^ C.K. Raju. Electromagnetic Time, chapter 5b, p.116-35 in Raju, C.K. (1994). Time: Towards a Consistent Theory. Kluwer Academic. ISBN 978-0-7923-3103-2.
  10. ^ See Raju, C.K. (2003). The Eleven Pictures of Time. Sage. ISBN 978-0-7619-9624-8. p.298-299.
  11. ^ Review of The Eleven Pictures of Time in Time and Society, London, 13(2), September, 2004, pp. 405-7
  12. ^ "Cultural Foundations of Mathematics" (PDF), Ghadar Jari Hai, vol. 2, no. 1, 2007, archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2010, retrieved 13 April 2009 Book Review
  13. ^ Raju, C.K. "Towards Equity in Mathematics Education 1. Goodbye Euclid!", Bharatiya Samajik Chintan, Indian Academy of Social Science. pp. 255-264. 2009.[1]
  14. ^ Education, Positions held and Society memberships, Institutions, ckraju.net

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]