CCM (bicycle company)
|Founded||Weston, ON. (1899)|
|Headquarters||Montreal, QC, Canada|
CCM was an initialism for Canada Cycle & Motor Co. Ltd. The company would eventually split into two separate entities both maintaining the CCM trademark, one maintaining bicycle manufacturing and the other, CCM (The Hockey Company), producing hockey equipment.
The formation of C.C.M. came at the same time as an American bicycle industry consolidation: "42 manufacturers formed the American Bicycle Company and soon afterwards announced plans to open a branch plant in Canada called the National Cycle Company." C.C.M. was established "when the operations of four major Canadian bicycle manufacturers amalgamated: H.A. Lozier, Massey-Harris, Goold, and Welland Vale Manufacturing." "The company then accounted for 85 per cent of Canadian cycle production."
Around 1899 many smaller bicycle makers went out of business, and C.C.M. soon became Canada's industry leader.
Russell Motor Car Company
In 1903, weakness in the bicycle market prompted C.C.M. to acquire the assets of Canadian Motors Ltd. (CML), a failed automobile producer. Tommy Russell, C.C.M.'s new general manager, saw an opportunity to diversify his company's product line.
C.C.M. Weston Factory
In 1895, H.A. Lozier & Co. opened a bicycle manufacturing plant on St. Clair Avenue in the Town of Toronto Junction (as the town was then officially called). "Massey-Harris and Gendron Bicycles also moved some bike manufacturing to The Junction in the HA Lozier factory."
Montreal, Winnipeg and Vancouver, were originally part of a diversified network of C.C.M. manufacturing processes. By 1917, C.C.M.'s bicycle manufacturing operations had moved into a larger factory on Lawrence Avenue West east of what is now called Weston Road in Weston, Ontario  where manufacturing continued until 1980.
From 1939-1945 during the Second World War C.C.M.'s cycle's manufacturing facilities were taken over by the Canadian government and declared an essential war service. Two simple, one-speed bicycles were manufactured and then shipped in wooden packing crates to the Canadian army. They produced motorcars, which have allegedly been used as light military vehicles. Due to a rubber shortage in 1942, the pedals of C.C.M. Rambler bicycles had wooden blocks. According to WWII veterans, the Rambler was popular with U.S. and British armed forces as well as Canadians.
"C.C.M. was taken over by Levy Industries [Limited] in 1962. Growing financial difficulties and strained labour relations in the 1970s led to operating losses, the company's sale in 1978 to the Cummings family of Montreal, a fleeting recovery, and then bankruptcy in 1983." 
By the late 1970s, the company was experiencing yearly losses and had to rely on the government for loans to keep itself solvent.
At some point, an updated Company logo (but not name) was introduced where C.C.M. became simply CCM. In 1982, the name was officially changed to the CCM moniker long in use by the public. A change of ownership failed to improve matters and the company declared bankruptcy in January 1983.
Procycle Group Inc.
Shortly after C.C.M. declared bankruptcy in 1983, all of the assets of the Company were purchased by Procycle Group Inc. of Québec who retained the bicycle division and sold off the hockey division to Montréal businessman David Zunenshine.
Procycle has acquired rights to a number of cycling brands for use on various lines of bicycles. At some point, Procycle renamed CCM to 'CCM cycle' to better differentiate the brand from the separate CCM Hockey business.
In 1999, the CCM brand turned 100 years old. After a 101-year history, over 10,000,000 bikes had been manufactured in Canada bearing the CCM name.
As of 2004, Procycle was the largest bicycle manufacturer in Canada, building 200,000 CCM-branded bikes per year across Canada and the USA.
The 'CCM cycle' website remained online until February, 2008, then displayed an under construction message until the end of May, 2008 when it went offline.
In an Industry Canada company directory profile updated in February, 2010, Procycle lists only two bicycle brands and divisions, Miele and Rocky Mountain, as reflected on the Procycle website.
CCM Holdings (1983) Inc.
CCM is a registered trademark of CCM Holdings (1983) Inc./ Gestion CCM (1983) Inc. and continues to be used under licence by separate companies for both hockey and bicycle products. CCM-branded bicycles continue to be sold in big box stores in Canada including Canadian Tire.
C.C.M. manufactured a wide variety of bicycles.
The C.C.M. Motor Bicycle was manufactured between 1910 and 1911. Only three are known to exist. Double or twin bar bicycles were produced from around 1917 to 1962. In 1922 the Company introduced the Joycycle, a new three-wheeler.
Around 1932, C.C.M. introduced the Light Delivery Bicycle, a freight bicycle with a stronger frame made of heavier gauge tubing and a basket. Previously, bicycles had been used as "commercial vehicles, either in a tricycle configuration or as modified touring tricycles."  In the late 1940s, a "Pixie" bicycle motor was installed to assist with heavy loads and climbing hills. One Ottawa greengrocer was seen using one of these delivery bikes from the 1930s until the early 1960s. C.C.M. introduced the aviation-inspired Flyte, designed by Harvey W. Peace, in 1936 and sold it until 1940. The Flyte advertising poster described a frame of aeroplane seamless steel tubing, a C.C.M. Triplex Hanger crankset, a C.C.M. Hercules Coaster Brake, Dunlop "Fort" Tires and other high-grade equipment.
Most CCM bikes were simple mass-market bicycles. According to an old CCM cycle website, the CCM Mustang Marauder was the popular children's wheelie bike similar to the Schwinn Sting-Ray or the Raleigh Chopper. The CCM Scamp was another children's model. During the 1970s, the company produced the popular and inexpensive CCM Targa road bike, as well as higher-end road bikes including the Silver Ghost and the Campagnolo-equipped (custom built) Tour du Canada. City- and touring models included the Calico, Capri, Centennial, Concorde, Elan, Elite, Encore, Galaxie, Grand Sport, Imperial, Sunspot and Targa. The CCM Ranger resembled the CCM Rambler, but with 26" wheels.
- Canada Science and Technology Museum - The Canada Cycle and Motor Company (C.C.M.) Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- Canada Science and Technology Museum - CCM Light Delivery: A Thousand Variations on a Theme Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- Norcliffe, Glen Canada Cycle and Motor Company Encyclopedia of Canadian History: '20th century belongs to Canada' to Canadian Youth Commission. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
- Vance, Bill. Russell: a truly native Canadian car. Canadian Driver. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
- New cycling mural at Dupont and Dundas - Junction Triangle Retrieved 2010-07-08.
- Canada Science and Technology Museum - C.C.M. Sampler Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- CCM cycle - Past and Present Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- MLU Forum - military bicycles: Canadian CCM "Rambler" Retrieved 2010-05-06.
- Last call for Toronto rust-belt - The Toronto Star Retrieved 2010-07-06.
- cycle - CCM history? Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- Procycle - Complete Profile Industry Canada. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- Canadian Conservation Institute, CCI Newsletter, No. 27, June 2001 - On Display: A 1911 C.C.M. Motor Bicycle Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- Williamson, John (2010) Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- The CANADIAN DESIGN RESOURCE - C.C.M. Flyte Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- CCM Flyte - Model History Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- Holt, Keith (2008) - CCM Flyte Retrieved 2010-05-06.
- Smith, Ken (1972). The Canadian Bicycle Book (page 29) ISBN 0-669-80564-5 (D.C. Heath Canada Limited)