Café au lait spot

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Café au lait spot
CALSpot.jpg
A café au lait spot on a patient's left cheek.
Classification and external resources
Specialty dermatology
ICD-10 L81.3
ICD-9-CM 709.09
DiseasesDB 16118
eMedicine ped/2754
MeSH D019080

Café au lait spots or café au lait macules are flat, pigmented birthmarks.[1] The name café au lait is French for "coffee with milk" and refers to their light-brown color. They are also called "giraffe spots" or "coast of Maine spots".[2]

They are caused by a collection of pigmented-producing melanocytes in the epidermis of the skin.[3]

These spots are typically permanent, and may grow or increase in number over time.[4]

Cafe au Lait spots are often harmless, but may be associated with syndromes such as Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and McCune-Albright syndrome.[4]

Etiology[edit]

Neurofibromatosis type I café au lait spot

Café au lait spots can arise from diverse and unrelated causes:[5][6]

Diagnosis[edit]

Diagnosis is visual with measurement of spot size and count of number of spots having clinical significance for diagnosis of associated disorders such as Neurofibromatosis type I. Usually, more than 6 spots more than 3 cm in diameter indicates NF1.

Prognosis[edit]

Café au Lait spots are usually present at birth, permanent, and may grow in size or increase in number over time.[4]

Cafe au Lait spots are themselves benign and do not cause any illness or problems. However, they may be associated with syndromes such as Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and McCune-Albright syndrome.[4]

The size and shape of the spots do not have any meaning or implications with regards to diagnosis of associated syndromes.[3]

Treatment[edit]

Cafe au lait spots can be removed with lasers.[9] Unfortunately results are variable as the spots are often not completely removed or can come back after treatment. Often, a test spot is treated first to help predict the likelihood of treatment success.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Plensdorf S, Martinez J (January 2009). "Common pigmentation disorders". American Family Physician 79 (2): 109–16. PMID 19178061. 
  2. ^ coast of Maine spots - General Practice Notebook
  3. ^ a b c al.], editors, Lowell A. Goldsmith ... [et (2012). Fitzpatrick's dermatology in general medicine (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. Chapter 141. ISBN 978-0-07-166904-7. 
  4. ^ a b c d Morelli, JG (2013). CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics, 22e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. pp. Chapter 15: Skin. ISBN 978-0-07-182734-8. 
  5. ^ "Cafe Au Lait Spots", by William D James, MD
  6. ^ Cafe Au Lait Spots
  7. ^ Arnsmeier, Sheryl L.; Riccardi, Vincent M.; Paller, Amy S. (1994). "Familial Multiple Cafe au lait Spots". Arch Dermatol. 130 (11): 1425–1426. doi:10.1001/archderm.1994.01690110091015. PMID 7979446. 
  8. ^ Whyte, M. P.; Podgornik, M. N.; Zerega, J.; Reinus, W. R. (2000). "Café-au-lait spots caused by vitiligo in McCune-Albright syndrome". J Bone Miner Res. 15 (12): 2521–2523. doi:10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.12.2521. PMID 11127218. 
  9. ^ Scheinfeld, Noah S. et al. (2011). "Laser Treatment of Benign Pigmented Lesions". MedScape Reference. 
  10. ^ al.], editors, Lowell A. Goldsmith ... [et (2012). Fitzpatrick's dermatology in general medicine (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. Chapter 239. ISBN 978-0-07-166904-7. 

External links[edit]