Calpinae

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Calpinae
Owlet moth (Cyclopis caecutiens).JPG
Owlet moth Cyclopis caecutiens
Brazil
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Superfamily: Noctuoidea
Family: Erebidae
Subfamily: Calpinae
Boisduval, 1840
Synonyms
  • Ophiderinae

The Calpinae are a subfamily of moths in the Erebidae family. This subfamily includes many species of moths that have a pointed and barbed proboscis adapted to piercing the skins of fruit to feed on juice, and in the case of the several Calyptra species of vampire moths, to piercing the skins of mammals to feed on blood.[1] The subfamily contains some large moths with wingspans longer than 5 cm (2 in).

Taxonomy[edit]

Recent phylogenetic studies have greatly revised this subfamily. The subfamily was previously classified within the Noctuidae, but the redefinition of that family has reclassified many of that family's subfamilies, including Calpinae, into the Erebidae family. The Calpinae are most closely related to a clade including the Eulepidotinae and Hypocalinae families, which are also among the Erebidae. The tribes Anomini and Scoliopterygini, previously included in the Calpinae, were found to be distantly related and were reclassified into a separate subfamily as the Scoliopteryginae.[2][3]

Tribes[edit]

The Calpinae consist of three monophyletic tribes.[3]

Previous taxonomy[edit]

The status of the former composition of the Calpinae was somewhat disputed; it was sometimes merged into the Catocalinae. Most of the calpine genera were not further classified. The phylogenetic structure of this group was essentially unresolved, and in many cases it was even doubtful whether the genera were indeed correctly placed in this subfamily.

Tribe Calpini[4]

Tribe Gonopterini

Genera incertae sedis

Genera provisionally placed here (incomplete list); includes taxa sometimes separated in Ophiderinae

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Florida Museum of Natural History (ed.). "Blood-feeding and Fruit-feeding Moths of Calpini Tribe (Noctuidae), Their Phylogeny and Classification". Archived from the original on 11 Apr 2015. Retrieved 21 Apr 2015. 
  2. ^ Lafontaine, Donald; Schmidt, Christian (19 Mar 2010). "Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico". ZooKeys. 40: 26. doi:10.3897/zookeys.40.414. 
  3. ^ a b Zahiri, Reza; et al. (2011). "Molecular phylogenetics of Erebidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea)". Systematic Entomology. 37: 102–124. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2011.00607.x. 
  4. ^ J.M. Zaspel and M.A. Branham (2008). "World Checklist of Tribe Calpini (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Calpinae)". University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Archived from the original on 20 Dec 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2010.