A camera dolly is a specialized piece of filmmaking and television production equipment designed to create smooth camera movements (cinematic techniques). The camera is mounted to the dolly and the camera operator and focus puller or camera assistant usually ride on the dolly to operate the camera. The dolly grip is the dedicated technician trained to operate the dolly.
The camera dolly may be used as a shooting platform on any surface but is often raised onto a track, to create smooth movement on a horizontal axis known as a dolly shot. Additionally, most professional film studio dollies have a hydraulic jib arm that raises or lowers the camera on the vertical axis. When a dolly grip operates a dolly on perpendicular axes simultaneously, it's known as a compound move.
Dolly moves may also be executed without track, giving more freedom on the horizontal plane and with it, a higher degree of difficulty. These are called dancefloor moves and may either be done on the existing surface (if smooth enough) or on an overlay designed for dolly movement. The ground overlay usually consists of thick plywood as a bottom layer and masonite on top.
Camera dollies have several steering mechanisms available to the dolly grip. The typical mode is rear-wheel steering, where the front wheels remain fixed, while the wheels closest to the operating handle are used to turn. A second mode, round steering, causes the front wheels to turn in the opposite direction from the rear wheels. This mode allows the dolly to move in smooth circles and is frequently used when the dolly is on curved track. A third mode, called crab steering, is when the front wheels steer in the same direction as the rear wheels. This allows the dolly to move in a direction diagonal to the front end of the dolly.
Studio dollies are large and stable and can feature hydraulics. These are the first choice for studio, backlot and location shoots when using professional cameras. A studio dolly usually needs a specialized operator called a "dolly grip", and many are built for the camera operator to ride on the dolly with the camera.
Lightweight dolly systems are more simple, affordable and are best used with lighter-weight cameras. Lightweight systems are usually favored by independent filmmakers and students because they are easier to carry and operate. These dollies support only the camera, and the operator needs to move alongside. Some lightweight dollies are small enough to be carried in a backpack.
The best way to be able to replicate the same camera movement for multiple takes (which is important for editing) is to use a dolly on track.
Dolly tracks used for heavy cameras have traditionally been constructed of steel or aluminium. Steel, although heavier than aluminum, is less expensive and withstands heavier use. Longer track segments, while heavier to transport, allow track to be laid straighter with less effort. Curved track is also available. Plastic versions of track have been used with lightweight dolly systems. In the 2000s, flexible rubber track allowed quicker set up and easier transportation for use with light cameras.
Use in sporting events
The "rail cam" made a public debut in the NHL on November 20, 2006 in the Colorado Avalanche/Dallas Stars hockey game. The Versus cable television network used the camera during the game to test it out for a live use on a nationally broadcast program. The camera was fastened to a rail system that ran on the top of the glass on one side of the ice rink. As the play shifted from end to end, the motorized mount allowed the camera to follow the action, sliding rapidly down the side of the ice. The system was developed by Fletcher Chicago. The experiment was short-lived, the "rail-cam" is no longer used in NHL hockey games.
A rail-mounted camera was used in 2000 for cricket matches in England. The side view shot of the camera was used to represent differences in speed, bounce and delivery.
- filmproductionroles.com Grip
- dollygrippery.net Dollygrippery, The definitive site on camera movement
- movies.about.com, dolly grip
- "VERSUS To Debut Rail Cam For Avalanche-Stars Game Monday". NHL.com. NHL.com. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- Fischer, John. "Enhancing the Viewer's Hockey Experience with Isolated Cameras on Players". inlouwetrust.com. Vox Media, Inc. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- "House bailed out". theguardian.com. The Guardian. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
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