Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Mike Nichols|
|Produced by||Mike Nichols
Joseph E. Levine
|Written by||Jules Feiffer|
|Edited by||Sam O'Steen|
|Distributed by||AVCO Embassy Pictures (1971, original)
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (1999, DVD)
|Box office||$12,351,000 (US/Canada rentals)|
The film follows the sexual exploits of two Amherst College roommates over a 25 year period, from the late 1940s to the early 1970s. Sandy (Art Garfunkel) is gentle and passive, while Jonathan Fuerst (Jack Nicholson) is tough and aggressive. Sandy idolizes women, while Jonathan objectifies women. He frequently uses the term "ballbuster" to describe women as emasculating teases whose main pleasure as he sees it is to deny pleasure to men. Since each man's perspective of womanhood as a whole is extreme and self-serving, neither is able to sustain a relationship with a woman.
The film has three parts. Part I occurs when Sandy and Jonathan are college roommates. Part II follows the men several years after college. The final part concerns the men when they become middle aged.
The film opens with Sandy and Jonathan discussing women, and what kind of women appeals to each. Sandy wants a woman who is intellectual. Jonathan, on the other hand, is more interested in a woman's physical attributes.
Sandy meets Susan (Candice Bergen) at an on-campus event. Sandy and Susan begin dating. Although they enjoy each other's company, Susan is reluctant to enter into a physical relationship with Sandy. Unknown to Sandy, Susan and Jonathan meet. Although Susan does not like Jonathan, she feels a physical attraction for him. They have sex. Jonathan convinces Susan not to have sex with Sandy. Thus, Susan has a purely intellectual relationship with Sandy, while at the same having a purely physical relationship with Jonathan. Eventually, the relationship between Jonathan and Sandy implodes.
Part II finds Sandy married to Susan, while Jonathan is still searching for his "perfect woman". Jonathan now defines a perfect woman by her bust size, hip size and leg shape. Jonathan begins a relationship with Bobbie (Ann-Margret), a beautiful woman who fulfills all of Jonathan's requirements. However, Jonathan constantly berates Bobbie for being shallow. Jonathan finds that this purely physical relationship is no more satisfying than his previous relationship with Susan.
Sandy's relationship with Susan is faring no better. Sandy is dissatisfied with the physical part of their relationship. He relates how they are "patient with each other", and concludes with a statement that perhaps sex is not "meant to be enjoyable with a person you love."
Later, Sandy and Susan have ended their relationship. Sandy is now dating Cindy (Cynthia O'Neal). Sandy, Cindy, Jonathan and Bobbie find themselves together at Jonathan's apartment. Jonathan suggests to Sandy that they trade partners. Jonathan attempts to seduce Cindy, while Sandy enters the bedroom looking for Bobbie. Cindy reprimands Jonathan for attempting to bed her with Sandy nearby, but says that he should contact her at a more appropriate time. In the meantime, upset by an earlier fight with Jonathan about her desire to get married, Bobbie has attempted suicide.
Part III opens with Jonathan presenting a slideshow entitled "Ballbusters on Parade" to Sandy (now in his 40s) and his 18-year-old girlfriend, Jennifer. The slideshow consists of pictures of Jonathan's various loves throughout his life; he skips awkwardly over a slide of Susan, but not before Sandy notices. Jennifer leaves in tears, and Sandy follows. In a later conversation with Jonathan, Sandy idolizes his new lover, explaining that "she knows worlds which I cannot begin to touch yet." Jonathan believes his friend is deluding himself.
Jonathan, by now extremely successful, is alone and suffers from impotence. The film ends with a prostitute manually stimulating Jonathan while reciting a monologue written by Jonathan praising his power and "perfection".
- Jack Nicholson as Jonathan Fuerst
- Arthur Garfunkel as Sandy
- Candice Bergen as Susan
- Ann-Margret as Bobbie
- Rita Moreno as Louise
- Carol Kane as Jennifer
- Cynthia O'Neal as Cindy
The script was originally written as a play. Jules Feiffer sent it to Mike Nichols, who thought it would work better as a film.
The changes in the morals of American society of the 1960s and 1970s and the general receptiveness by the public to frank discussion of sexual issues was sometimes at odds with local community standards. A theatre in Albany, Georgia, showed the film. On January 13, 1972, the local police served a search warrant on the theatre, and seized the film. In March 1972, the theatre manager, Mr. Jenkins, was convicted of the crime of "distributing obscene material". His conviction was upheld by the Supreme Court of Georgia. On June 24, 1974, the U.S. Supreme Court found that the State of Georgia had gone too far in classifying material as obscene in view of its prior decision in Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973) (the Miller standard), and overturned the conviction. Jenkins v. Georgia, 418 U.S. 153 (1974). The court also said that,
Our own viewing of the film satisfies us that Carnal Knowledge could not be found … to depict sexual conduct in a patently offensive way. Nothing in the movie falls within … material which may constitutionally be found … "patently offensive" … While the subject matter of the picture is, in a broader sense, sex, and there are scenes in which sexual conduct including "ultimate sexual acts" is to be understood to be taking place, the camera does not focus on the bodies of the actors at such times. There is no exhibition whatever of the actors' genitals, lewd or otherwise, during these scenes. There are occasional scenes of nudity, but nudity alone is not enough to make material legally obscene… Appellant's showing of the film Carnal Knowledge is simply not the "public portrayal of hard core sexual conduct for its own sake, and for the ensuing commercial gain" which we said was punishable…
Carnal Knowledge was nominated for Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama (Jack Nicholson), Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture (Art Garfunkel), and Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress (Ann-Margret).
In popular culture
- A 1971 All in the Family episode "Gloria Poses in the Nude" has Archie and Edith coming home after watching the film. Edith thought it was a religious film because she thought the title of the film was Cardinal Knowledge until Archie corrects her.
- The 1992 The Wonder Years episode "Carnal Knowledge" has Kevin Arnold and his friends attempting to sneak in to see the film despite being underage.
- In the 1992 Seinfeld episode "The Trip", George Costanza and Jerry Seinfeld ponder whether Candice Bergen showed her breasts in the film.
Carnal Knowledge was released on DVD December 7, 1999, by MGM Home Video.
- "CARNAL KNOWLEDGE (X)". British Board of Film Classification. 1971-07-19. Retrieved 2012-10-20.
- "All-time Film Rental Champs", Variety, 7 January 1976 p 20
- Nichols Meets Jules Feiffer: Mike Nichols By A. H. WEILER. New York Times (1923–Current file) [New York, N.Y] 26 Oct 1969: D17.
- Censored Films and Television at University of Virginia online
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