Ernest Callenbach

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Ernest William Callenbach
Ernest Callenbach, 2008 (cropped).jpg
Ernest Callenbach in 2008
Ernest William Callenbach

(1929-04-03)April 3, 1929
DiedApril 16, 2012(2012-04-16) (aged 83)
SchoolGreen Philosophy
Main interests

Ernest Callenbach (April 3, 1929 – April 16, 2012) was an American author, film critic, editor, and simple living adherent.[1] He became famous due to his internationally successful semi-utopian novel Ecotopia (1975).

Life and work[edit]

Born into a farming family in Williamsport, Pennsylvania,[2] Callenbach attended the University of Chicago, where he was drawn into the then 'new wave' of serious attention to film as an art form. After six months in Paris at the Sorbonne, watching four films a day, he returned to Chicago and earned a master's degree in English and Communications.

Callenbach then moved to California. From 1955 to 1991, he was on the staff of the University of California Press (Berkeley). A general copywriter for a number of years, he edited the Press's Film Quarterly from 1958 until 1991.[2] He also occasionally taught film courses at U.C. and at San Francisco State University.

For many years Callenbach edited the Natural History Guides at the U.C. Press. He began to take environmental issues and their connections to human value systems, social patterns, and lifestyles just as seriously as he had taken film. He was heavily influenced by Edward Abbey. Callenbach talked publicly about being influenced, during work on his novel Ecotopia, by numerous streams of thought: scientific discoveries in the fields of ecology and conservation biology; the urban-ecology planning movement, concerned with an approach to urban planning; and the soft-energy movement, championed by Amory Lovins and others.[3]

Callenbach is known as an author of green books, namely as author of the ecological "utopias" Ecotopia (1975) and Ecotopia Emerging (1981), and also The Ecotopian Encyclopedia (1981), Bring Back the Buffalo! (1995), and Ecology: A Pocket Guide (1998). (While his first novel popularized the term "ecotopia," the term was actually coined by the ethnographer E. N. Anderson.)[4]

In terms of concepts of human involvement with the ecology, as well as some of the economic and social concepts, the Ecotopia books are related to what is known as the sustainability movement.[3] Callenbach's Ecotopian concept is not "Luddite" — he does not reject high technology, but rather his fictional society shows a conscious selectivity about technology. In Ecotopia ecologically compatible high-technology exists alongside postmaterialistic attitudes and lifestyles.[5] As an example, with its emphasis on personal rather than impersonal interaction, Callenbach's Ecotopian society anticipates the development and liberal usage of videoconferencing.

Indeed, for all his involvement with print publishing, Callenbach remained quite interested in visual media. Aspects of his book Ecotopia in some ways anticipated C-SPAN — which came into being a few years later — because in the story the daily life of the legislature and some of that of the judicial courts is televised in this fictional society, and televised debates (including technical debates concerning ecological problems) meet a need and desire among citizens.

Callenbach was a part of the circle of West Coast technologists, architects, social thinkers, and scientists which included Ursula K. Le Guin, Sim Van der Ryn, Peter Calthorpe, Stewart Brand, Kevin Kelly, J. Baldwin, and John Todd.[6] As with some of these others, he was often a speaker, discussion panellist, and essayist.

In 2006 Callenbach introduced the story of a real-world community movement in Japan that is reminiscent, in its aims and practices, of his Ecotopian society. He visited Japan and investigated the Yamagishi movement. He found that it encompassed some three dozen intentional communities founded on the same underlying principles: living an ecologically based integration of people with agriculture (pig, cattle, and chicken livestock raising, and organic-vegetable and fruit farming), and living a social life based on principles of democracy, mutual understanding, support, and health. Each individual settlement is referred to as jikkenji ('demonstration community for the world').[7]

In 2009, Callenbach was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Freiburg.[8] Freiburg is noted for its renewable energy industry and has been called a "green utopia".[9] He died of cancer on April 16, 2012 in Berkeley, California.[10]


...if you reflect on our change from thoughtless trash-tossing to virtually universal recycling, or from the past in which smokers didn't hesitate to blow smoke in anybody's face to our present restrictions on smoking in public places, it's clear that shared ideas about acceptable or desirable behavior can change markedly. Such changes occurred without anybody getting arrested in the dark of night. Further changes will come...


  • Living Poor With Style (New York: Bantam, 1972)
  • Ecotopia (Banyan Tree Books, 1975)
    • Italian translation: Ecotopia (Castelvecchi Editore, 2012)
  • Ecotopia Emerging (Banyan Tree Books, 1981)
  • The Ecotopian Encyclopaedia for the 80's: A Survival Guide for the Age of Inflation (Berkeley: And/Or Press, 1981)
  • A Citizen Legislature (Bookpeople, 1985; rev. ed. Imprint Academic, 2008)
  • Publisher's Lunch (Ten Speed Press, 1989)
  • Ecology: A Pocket Guide (U. of California Press, 1998; rev. ed. 2008)
  • Living Cheaply With Style: Live Better and Spend Less (Berkeley: Ronin, 1993). ISBN 0-914171-61-5
  • Living Cheaply With Style: Live Better and Spend Less, Second edition (Berkeley: Ronin, 2000). ISBN 1-57951-014-0
  • Bring Back the Buffalo!: A Sustainable Future for America's Great Plains (U. of California Press, 2000)

Further reading[edit]

  • Ernest Callenbach "Ecotopia in Japan?," in: Communities 132 (Fall 2006), pp. 42–49.
  • R. Frye, "The Economics of Ecotopia," in: Alternative Futures 3 (1980), pp. 71–81.
  • K.T. Goldbach, "Utopian Music: Music History of the Future in Novels by Bellamy, Callenbach and Huxley," in: Utopia Matters. Theory, Politics, Literature and the Arts, ed. F. Viera, M. Freitas, Porto 2005, pp. 237–243.
  • R. Meinhold, "Ecotopia", in: Paul B. Thompson and David M. Kaplan (eds.) Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Food Ethics (2013), pp 548–551
  • U. Meyer: "Selling an 'ecological religion'. Strategies of Persuasion in Ernest Callenbach's Ecotopia". In: M. Lotz, M. van der Minde, D. Weidmann (Hrsg.): Von Platon bis zur Global Governance. Entwürfe für menschliches Zusammenleben. Marburg 2010, pp. 253–280.
  • H. Tschachler, "Despotic Reason in Arcadia. Ernest Callenbach's Ecological Utopias," Science Fiction Studies 11 (1984), pp. 304–317.

External links[edit]


  1. ^ Woo, Elaine (April 25, 2012). "Ernest Callenbach obituary: Author of novel 'Ecotopia' dies at 83". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
  2. ^ a b Woo, Elaine (April 25, 2012). "Ernest Callenbach obituary: Author of novel 'Ecotopia' dies at 83". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
  3. ^ a b Callenbach, Ernest. ""Life in a Desirable Future," a talk at the Rubenstein School for Environment & Natural Resources at the University of Vermont". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
  4. ^ Reinventing Anthropology, Dell H. Hymes, Vintage Books, 1974, page 264
  5. ^ Meinhold, Roman (2014). "Ecotopia". Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics. pp. 548–551. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6167-4_295-5. ISBN 978-94-007-6167-4.
  6. ^ Kirk, Andrew G. (2007). Counterculture Green: the Whole Earth Catalog and American Environmentalism. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1545-2.
  7. ^ Callenbach, Ernest (2006). Ecotopia in Japan?, in: Communities 132, Fall 2006; Rutledge, Missouri; pp. 42–49.
  8. ^ "Ehrenpromotion Callenbach – Englisches Seminar". University of Freiburg. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  9. ^ Watson, Nick (June 13, 2008). "Vauban – a green utopia?". BBC News. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  10. ^ Hevesi, Dennis (April 27, 2012). "Ernest Callenbach, Author of 'Ecotopia,' Dies at 83". The New York Times.