Raised in Staten Island, New York, her mother played golf and encouraged Cudone to play the game. Her amateur golfing career was successful but she is best known for her performance as a seniors' golfer.
Sometimes recorded as Mrs. Philip J. Cudone, among her amateur career successes was her 1958 victory at the North and South Women's Amateur. She was a member of the on the 1956 U.S. Curtis Cup team and in 1970 was team captain. However, it was at the U.S. Senior Women's Amateur where she enjoyed her most noted success. Of the ten Championships she participated in, Cudone won a record five straight titles between 1968 and 1972, the most wins in a row in any USGA championship.
A long-time resident of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, Cudone was a member of the Dunes Golf and Beach Club. In 1979, she was inducted into the South Carolina Golf Hall of Fame. The Carolyn Cudone Intercollegiate Championship is named in her honor. She was inducted into the Myrtle Beach Golf Hall of Fame in 2009.
Significant career victories
- New Jersey State Women's Golf Championship: 1955, 1956, 1959, 1960, 1963, 1965
- New Jersey stroke-play: 11-time winner
- North and South Women's Amateur: 1958
- Women's Metropolitan Amateur: 1955, 1961, 1963, 1964, 1965
- U.S. Senior Women's Amateur: 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972
- Curtis Cup (representing the United States): 1956, 1970 (non-playing captain, winners)