Broadway Stores, Inc., was an American retailer based in Southern California. Known through its history as Carter Hawley Hale Stores and Broadway Hale Stores over time, it acquired other retail store chains in regions outside its California home base and became in certain retail sectors a regional and national retailer in the 1970s and 1980s. It entered into Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1991 and, eventually, its assets were completely sold off.
In 1950, as Los Angeles began to grow in population very rapidly and assumed dominance within the state, the fast-growing The Broadway Department Stores (founded in 1896) based there negotiated an all-stock merger with Hale Bros. Stores, Inc. Edward W. Carter, president of The Broadway, became the president of Broadway-Hale Stores.
The newly enlarged company began to grow aggressively with its Broadway stores expanding south to San Diego in 1961 and east to Phoenix, Arizona, in 1968. A mail order firm named the Sunset House was also acquired in 1968. In 1970, the company acquired Emporium-Capwell Co., itself the holding company for Emporium in San Francisco (and suburbs) and Capwell's (H.C. Capwell Co.) in Oakland (and suburbs) and keeping their respective names on the stores in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Also in 1969, Broadway-Hale acquired the then 3-unit Neiman Marcus specialty department store, based in Dallas, Texas, and the Walden Book Co. (known more commonly as Waldenbooks) and began to actively grow those businesses, nationwide.
In 1972, Prentis Hale retired as chairman, Edward Carter assumed the chairmanship and Philip M. Hawley (who started as a women's sportswear buyer in 1958) became company president. In 1974, in a news release it states, CHH stated that to reflect the executives' contributions, the corporate parent was adopting the name Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc. The new name was a major tongue twister, and stock analysts sometimes called it "Ego, Inc." The Wall Street Journal reported in 1984 that some critics accused Carter and Hawley on being on an "ego trip". In 1977, Carter retired. Hawley was appointed CEO.
The company continued to be an active acquirer, in 1972 acquiring Bergdorf Goodman in New York, and Holt Renfrew of Montreal, Canada. After attempting an ill-fated, unsuccessful hostile takeover of Marshall Field in 1977, the company acquired the venerable but tattered John Wanamaker's of Philadelphia for $60 million (cash) in April 1978. That was followed by a stock swap for Thalhimers of Richmond, Virginia in August 1978. Contempo Casuals was a May 1979, takeover. Emporium and Capwell's were merged to form a unified San Francisco Bay-area presence as Emporium-Capwell in 1980, Weinstock's moved into Utah and Reno, Nevada, and The Broadway stores were split into separate Los Angeles and Phoenix-based divisions as the chain expanded into Colorado, New Mexico and Nevada. Sales increased, but profits did not. The saying on Wall Street was "God gave them Southern California, and they blew it", which the Wall Street Journal had attributed to Monroe H. Greenstein, a retailing analyst at Bear Stearns.
In 1980, CHH decided to get rid of units which catered to the lower economic markets. The first to go was the Sunset House mail order unit which also operated novelty shops in shopping malls. CHH found a buyer that only wanted the mail order unit and the mall stores were closed in 1981.
Faced with continuing poor results, and two hostile takeover attempts by The Limited in 1984 and 1986, the company, still led by Phillip M. Hawley, reacted by first selling Waldenbooks to K-mart in 1985, Holt Renfrew to the Weston Family in April 1986, Wanamaker's to A. Alfred Taubman's Woodward & Lothrop in January 1987 and then splitting off the desirable specialty store business as Neiman-Marcus Group, Inc. (encompassing the Neiman-Marcus, Bergdorf Goodman and Contempo Casuals stores). The company that had rescued Carter Hawley Hale from The Limited takeover-attempts, theater owner/soft-drink bottler-cum-investment company General Cinema (later renamed Harcourt General) assumed majority ownership of Neiman-Marcus Group as its reward. Thalhimer's was sold to May Department Stores in December 1990.
1990s and the end
From its heights in 1984 as the sixth-largest department store chain firm in the United States, CHH fell into Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1991. Besides the financial problems of surviving the 1980s era of hostile takeovers, the main California department store business had faltered because of increasing competition from Nordstrom.
In 1992, after one and one-half years of bankruptcy negotiations, financier Sam Zell and his Zell/Chilmark Fund completed the reorganization of the newly renamed Broadway Stores, Inc., taking a 75 percent stake. In early 1993, the three Utah-based Weinstock's stores were closed and the store leases were sold to Mervyns, Dillard's, and ZCMI.
After the takeover by Zell, Hawley was replaced as CEO by David Dworkin. Dworkin tried to slow the outward flow of cash from the company by remodeling stores and streamlining operations. In June 1994, the shareholders of Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc. voted to change the name of the company to Broadway Stores, Inc. to symbolize a change in the ailing company, but it was too late to make a difference.
The final blow came on August 8, 1995, when the firm's lenders announced they would not advance the company any additional funds - which were needed to pay suppliers for new, as well as existing inventory. A week later, the firm announced its sale to Federated Department Stores which effectively marked the beginning of the end to the remnant nameplates that the stores had operated under.
The newly streamlined company was short-lived, however. In August 1995, Federated Department Stores agreed to acquire Broadway Stores. The chain was dissolved in 1996 as Federated consolidated the former Broadway, Emporium and Weinstock's stores, along with its own Macy's California and Bullock's chains (acquired in 1994), to form Macy's West. Several duplicative units were sold to Sears or shuttered, while Federated also used the real estate of five stores (Emporium-Capwell Stanford Shopping Center, Broadway Sherman Oaks Fashion Square, Broadway Century City Shopping Center, Broadway Beverly Center, and Broadway Fashion Island Newport Beach) to finally bring its Bloomingdale's chain to the West Coast.
On September 28, 2006, Emporium-Capwell's Market Street flagship was redeveloped to house another Bloomingdale's location as well as an expansion of the adjoining shopping center Westfield San Francisco Centre. In addition, the one-time CHH Corporate Offices in the former Superior Oil Company Building at 550 South Flower Street in Los Angeles, right next door to The California Club (of which Carter and Hawley were members), were converted into a three-star boutique hotel called "The Standard."
The Broadway division was the largest department store division within the company. The division could trace its roots to the Broadway Department Store that was founded in Los Angeles by Arthur Letts, Sr. in 1896. By 1992, the division expanded throughout Southern California and started expanded outside of California. In 1979, the division was split into the Phoenix-based Broadway Southwest to handle the out-of-state stores and the Los Angeles-based Broadway Southern California to handle the stores within California. The two separate divisions were consolidated in 1992 after many of the non-Californian stores were closed. At the time of its parent acquisition by Federated, Broadway had 52 stores.
The chain's beginnings date from The Criterion store founded in Sacramento, California, in 1880 by the Hale Brothers, Prentis Cobb Hale I and Marshal Hale and adopted their name later the same year. By 1936, scion Prentis Cobb Hale worked as a stock clerk in the family store after he graduated from Stanford University. The company had expanded throughout Northern California, including a location at 989 Market Street in San Francisco by 1902 (replaced in 1912 by a location at 901 Market Street). By 1949, the company had acquired its Sacramento-based rival Weinstock, Lubin & Co.. Weinstock's was kept as a separate brand. Paradoxically, the Hale brand was later absorbed by the Weinstock's brand in Northern California.
Emporium-Capwell was created by the 1927 merger of the San Francisco-based Emporium Company and the Oakland-based H.C. Capwell Company. This company kept the two brands separate and had opened many Emporium and Capwell stores respectively throughout the San Francisco Bay Area prior to its acquisition by Broadway-Hale in 1970. Under Carter Hawley Hale, there were 12 Emporiums and six Capwell stores when the two brands were merged to form the single Emporium-Capwell brand in 1980. There were 22 Emporium-Capwell stores left at the time of its parent's acquisition by Federated.
Weinstock's could trace its origins to the Sacramento-based Weinstock, Lubin & Co. There were 8 Weinstock's store left at the time of its parent's acquisition by Federated.
Carter Hawley Hale also is known as a famous case study regarding its retirement plans. Because it offered its employees a profit-sharing plan, and not a retirement fund, under the Federal Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) pension plan law, the trustee was under no obligation to diversify the fund. Because of the nondiversification and continued purchase of Carter Hawley Hale stock, the employee fund soon was stuck with a precipitous loss in value. Its employees’ low morale contributed to its problems.
The longtime print and television-radio media advertising slogans during the 1970s until The Broadway closed for good were "It's at the Broadway" (radio and television only) and "The Broadway is Southern California" (all media). A baritone male voice-over announcer provided the verbalized slogan.
- Bush, Thomas W. (August 23, 1968). "Broadway-Hale Agrees to Buy Sunset House for $13.5 Million". Los Angeles Times. p. e13. (subscription required (. ))
Sunset House would operate under present management as an autonomous subsidiary of Broadway-Hale. Carter said acquisition of the company is "a first step in our announced program of corporate diversification, and Sunset House will provide us with new opportunities through its nationwide mail order distribution of consumer goods."Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- "Broadway-Hale Stores Shareholders Approve Sunset House Purchase". Wall Street Journal. November 29, 1968. p. 7. (subscription required (. ))
Shareholders of Broadway-Hale Stores Inc. approved their company's acquisition of Sunset House, a specialty mail-order concern at a special meeting.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- Auerbach, Alexander (June 26, 1970). "Arrangements Set for Broadway-Hale, Emporium Merger". Los Angeles Times. p. d13. (subscription required (. ))
Broadway-Hale Stores Inc. and Emporium-Capwell Co. Thursday announced a formal plan of merger and reorganization, following the lines of a preliminary merger plan announced May 11.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- "Emporium Capwell Co., Broadway-Hale Stores Agree to a Merger: Emporium Will Give 1 1/8 Shares for Each Share of Broadway-Hale; Holders of Both Must Approve". Wall Street Journal. May 12, 1970. p. 16. (subscription required (. ))
Emporium Capwell Co. and Broadway-Hale Stores Inc., both West Coast retailers, announced an agreement in principle to merge. Emporium Capwell would be the surviving corporation, but its name would be changed to Broadway-Hale Stores Inc. In a joint statement, the companies said that Prentis C. Hale, chairman of Broadway-Hale, and Edward W. Carter, its president and chief executive officer, would serve as chairman and president respectively of the merged corporation. Emporium Capwell stores would be operated under their present management.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- "Broadway-Hale Stores, Neiman-Marcus Agree In Principle to Merge: Transaction Valued at $39 Million; Terms Call for Broadway-Hale To Issue Convertible Preferred". Wall Street Journal. October 24, 1968. p. 11. (subscription required (. ))
Neiman-Marcus Co. and Broadway·Hale Stores Inc. have agreed in principle to a merger of Neiman-Marcus into Broadway-Hale. Neiman-Marcus operates specialty stores in Dallas, Houston and Fort Worth.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- "Neiman-Marcus Holders Vote Merger Into Broadway-Hale". Wall Street Journal. April 9, 1969. p. 29. (subscription required (. ))
Stockholders of Neiman-Marcus Co. approved the merger of Neiman·Marcus into Broadway·Hale Stores Inc., Los Angeles, at a special meeting. Broadway·Hale holders approved the merger last November.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- "Broadway Results Peak In 3d Quarter". Women's Wear Daily. 119 (105). December 1, 1969. p. 12.
Broadway-Hale Stores, Inc., has acquired Walden Book Co., Stamford, Conn., a national retailer of books, a spokesman confirmed.Link via ProQuest.
- "Broadway's Parent to Take New Name". Los Angeles Times. February 12, 1974. p. c9. (subscription required (. ))
But when Broadway-Hale Stores Inc. directors decided it was time for a change they just looked around the table. The Los Angeles firm, parent of the Broadway Stores, Neiman-Marcus, Capwell's and other retail operations, will be known as Carter Hawley Hale Stores Inc., if the shareholders approve. The name is taken from its principal executives: Edward W. Carter, board chairman; Philip M. Hawley, president; and Prentis C. Hale, chairman of the executive committee. Operating divisions will retain their present names. The company said "Broadway-Hale" was too often confused with the Broadway Stores retailing unit.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- Gottschalk, Earl C., Jr. (April 12, 1984). "Carter Hawley Chief Finds Firm Is Target Of Takeover After Own '70s Buying Binge". Wall Street Journal (Eastern ed.). p. 1. (subscription required (. ))
In the past few years Carter Hawley has also lost market share In California because of a retailing invasion by R.H. Macy & Co. and Nordstrom, retailers says. "God gave them California and they blew it," says Monroe H. Greenstein, retailing analyst at Bear, Stearns & Co... Mr. Hawley's personality is at the heart of the company's operations, and that seems to be a mixed blessing... In 1972 he was appointed president of Broadway Hale Stores Inc. Three years later, the company changed its name to Carter Hawley Hale Stores Inc., provoking some gripes that Edward W. Carter, chairman, and Mr. Hawley were on an "ego trip". In 1977 Mr. Hawley was named chief executive officer, replacing Mr. Carter. Last year, when Mr Carter retired, Mr. Hawley became chairman.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- Getze, John (January 6, 1977). "Hawley Named Chief of Broadway Stores Parent". Los Angeles Times. p. D10. (subscription required (. ))
Philip M. Hawley Wednesday was elected chief executive officer of Carter Hawley Hale Stores Inc., the nation's seventh-largest department store chain. Hawley, 51, has been president of the Los Angeles-based company since 1972. He joined the firm in 1958 and became president of the Broadway Slores division in 1968. Hawley, who will assume his new responsibilities Feb. 1. succeeds Edward W. Carter. the company's 65-year-old chairman of the board, in the post of chief executive. Carter will remain chairman and continue to be active in the firm's management. Carter has been chief executive since 1946, when the company consisted of three Broadway department storesAlternate Link via ProQuest.
- "Broadway-Hale Stores Allowed by FTC to Buy Bergdorf Goodman Co.: Panel Agrees New York Retailer Likely Would Close Without Merger for Lack of Funding". Wall Street Journal. April 14, 1972. p. 30. (subscription required (. ))
The Federal Trade Commission approved Broadway-Hale Stores Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Bergdort Goodman Co., a New York fashion store. Broadway-Hale, a Los Angeles-based chain of department stores, is required by a previous agreement with the commission to obtain FTC approval for such acquisitions. The FTC said its approval was based largely on the companies' contention that the Bergdorf store on New York's Fifth Avenue probably would have to be closed unless the acquisition was allowed. The FTC said Broadway-Hale argued that "massive financing" needed to expand the store probably wouldn't have been available to Bergdorf because of its "unstable financial condition."Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- Sloane, Leonard (March 25, 1971). "West Coast Chain To Buy Bergdorf's: Bergdorf Goodman to Be Bought by Broadway-Hale Stores, a West Coast Chain". New York Times. p. 1. (subscription required (. ))
Bergdorf Goodman, the Fifth Avenue specialty store, has signed an agreement in principle to be acquired by Broadway-Hale Stores, Inc., the largestdepartment store organization in the West and one of the 50 largest retailers in the United States. Presently, Broadway-Hale operates 29 full-line department stores called Broadway in southern California, Arizona and Nevada. It also owns the 13 Weinstock stores in Northern California and Nevada; 14 Emporium and Capwell stores in San Francisco and Oakland; four Neiman-Marcus stores in Texas; Sunset House, a leading mail-order business, and the Walden Book Company which has stores in 44 states.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- "Broadway-Hale to Acquire 19-Store Canadian Retailer". Los Angeles Times. December 22, 1971. p. d13. (subscription required (. ))
Broadway-Hale Stores Inc. of Los Angeles reported Tuesday that it has agreed to purchase Holt, Renfrew & Co. Ltd., a 19-store Canadian fashion retailing chain, from a subsidiary of CIT Financial Corp... Canadian Acceptance Corp., Ltd., a unit of New York-based CIT.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- Wiener, Leonard (February 2, 1978). "Carter Hawley raises its bid to buy Fields". Chicago Tribune. p. C6.
Carter Hawley Hale Stores. Inc., announced plans Wednesday to take its Marshall Field & Co. takeover offer directly to Fields shareholders. The management and directors of Fields have been fighting an attempt by Carter Hawley to force merger negotiations. That is why Carter Hawley has begun the process to bypass Field executives and make a $378 million public offer to buy "any or all shares" of Fields. Fields has stores in Cleveland and the Pacific Northwest, in addition to Chicago.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- Auerbach, Alexander (February 2, 1978). "Carter Hawley Hale Will Push Field Bid: Planned Tender Offer May Total $380 Million". Los Angeles Times. p. e12. (subscription required (. ))
Carter Hawley Hale Stores Inc., Los Angeles, Wednesday announced plans (or a tender offer for the stock of Marshall Field & Co., Chicago. At current prices, the offer could be worth a total of $380 million. Field's officers and directors unanimously rejected an informal merger proposal by Carter Hawley Hale last month.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- Wiener, Leonard (February 23, 1978). "Business: Carter Hawley withdraws bid for Fields Bid to control Fields dropped". Chicago Tribune. p. c7.
Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc., Wednesday dropped its attempt to take over Marshall Field & Co. Carter Hawley, based in Los Angeles, operates department stores across the country and has been publicly courting Fields since December. Other big retailing chains also have been reported interested in Fields, a retailer with a well-regarded name but one that only recently has begun to overcome past management and financial problems.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- Auerbach, Alexander (February 23, 1978). "Carter Hawley Hale Drops Bid for Field: Offer No Longer Makes Economic Sense to L.A. Firm". Los Angeles Times. p. d13. (subscription required (. ))
Carter Hawley Hale Stores Inc., Los Angeles, Wednesday said it is withdrawing its proposed offer to acquire Marshall Field & Co., Chicago, because the hotly contested bid "no longer makes economic sense." The action ended a four-month effort by Carter Hawley to acquire the reluctant Field. Despite an offer of twice its market price, the Chicago firm escaped by throwing up a curtain of lawsuits and transforming itself into a company no longer attractive to its pursuer.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- "Wanamaker Takeover". Washington Post. March 10, 1978. p. B8. (subscription required (. ))
Carter Hawley Hales Stores, Inc., has reached an agreement in principle to acquire the 15-store John Wanamaker department store chain for $12.6 million in cash and 12 million shares of Carter Hawley Hale common stock worth about $65 million. Wanamaker has stores in the Philadelphia, New York and Wilmington areas.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- Auerbach, Alexander (March 9, 1978). "Carter Hawley Hale Will Buy J. Wanamaker: Broadway's Parent to Pay About $45 Million for Philadelphia Chain". Los Angeles Times. p. d13. (subscription required (. ))
Carter Hawley Hale Stores Inc., Los Angeles, Wednesday announced that it will acquire John Wanamaker, a Philadelphia-based department store chain, for about $45 million in cash and common stock.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- Knight, Jerry (June 20, 1978). "Thalhimer's Acquired by Carter Hawley". Washington Post. pp. E1–E2. (subscription required (. ))
Carter Hawley Hales Stores Inc., the big retailer that has been on a shopping spree for department stores, yesterday agreed to acquire Thalnimer Brothers of Richmond for stock worth $70 million.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- "Carter Hawley Acquisition". Wall Street Journal. May 17, 1979. p. 14. (subscription required (. ))
Carter Hawley Hale Stores Inc. said it acquired the outstanding stock of Contempo Casuals, a retailer of women's sportswear, in a private cash transaction.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- "Merge Emporium, Capwell Divisions". WWD. 140 (36). February 21, 1980. pp. 1–2.
The Emporium and H.C. Capwell divisions of Carter Hawley Hale have been combined into a single division, Emporium Capwell, with a single management team. Hawley noted the two divisions, now operating as one, will be able to make a stronger impact in use of media and customers now will have charge accounts in 18 stores.Link via ProQuest.
- "California: Carter Hawley Hale will link two Northern California chains.". Los Angeles Times. February 21, 1980. p. f2. (subscription required (. ))
effective May 1, its Emporium and Capwell divisions will combine their operations and management in the San Francisco-Oakland areas. The 12 Emporiums and six Capwell's all will be known as Emporium Capwell.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- "Carter Hawley to Sell Assets of Sunset House Unit". Los Angeles Times. November 11, 1980. p. e2. (subscription required (. ))
In a move that signals the new strategy of Carter Hawley Hale Stores Inc. to go after the affluent consumer, the Los Angeles-based retailer announced Monday that it has made arrangements to sell the assets of its Sunset House division to a group of private investors. The sale price for Sunset House, a specialized retailer which has a nationwide gifts and novelties mail order business and 42 stores in the Southwest, was not disclosed, nor were the names of the investors.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- "Carter Hawley Hale to Sell Unit's Assets". New York Times (Late (East Coast) ed.). November 11, 1980. p. D.4. (subscription required (. ))
Carter Hawley Hale Stores Inc. of Los Angeles, a nationwide operator of department and specialty stores that include such units as Neiman-Marcus and Bergdorf Goodman, announced yesterday that it has made arrangements to sell the assets of its Sunset House division, a specialty merchandise operation based in Los Angeles. Carter Hawley Hale did not disclose to whom it was selling the assets. Nor did it disclose how much money was involved in the sale, which is expected to be made final during the current fiscal year, which ends on the Saturday closest to Jan. 31. But the company did say that the sale of the assets was expected to produce a slight gain over their book value. A spokesman said the sale reflected the fact that "Sunset no longer fits our corporate retailing strategy." Sunset House conducts a nationwide mail order, gift and novelty business from its Los Angeles headquarters. It also operates shopping center mall specialty shops that sell gifts and accessories for the home. The unit, acquired by Carter Hawley Hale in 1968, includes 42 stores with a total floor space of 100,000 square feet.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- "N.Y. Firm to Buy Portion of Sunset House". Los Angeles Times. January 8, 1981. p. f2. (subscription required (. ))
Unit Buying Service Co. Inc., a catalogue mail-order merchandiser, disclosed Wednesday that it has agreed to purchase the mail-order portion of Sunset House Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Carter Hawley Hale Stores Inc., Los Angeles. A spokesman for the Hicksville, N.Y.-based retailer said the company will pay between $3.5 million and $5 million for the trademark and trade names "Sunset House" and "Beauty Showcase;" the complete customer mailing list, and certain outlets located in the Southwest. Carter Hawley Hale would not comment on the fate of the stores or on the agreement. Carter Hawley Hale purchased the Sunset House unit in 1968 but put it up for sale last year, saying itno longer fit into the chain's "corporate strategy."Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- Barmash, Isadore (April 3, 1984). "Carter Hawley Bid By Limited". New York Times.
- Groves, Martha (November 26, 1986). "Carter Hawley Hale Again Targeted in Takeover Bid". Los Angeles Times.
- Barmash, Isadore (July 24, 1984). "K Mart to Acquire Waldenbooks". New York Times.
- Rivera, Nancy (February 19, 1986). "Carter Hawley to Sell Its 15-Store Unit in Canada". Los Angeles Times.
- Dunn, Brian (February 19, 1986). "Weston To Buy Holt Renfrew". Montreal Gazette. pp. F–1.
- Groves, Martha (November 5, 1986). "Wanamaker Will Be Sold by Carter Hawley : Analysts Estimate Value of Deal at $180 Million". Los Angeles Times.
- Yoshihara, Nancy (December 9, 1986). "Carter Hawley Hale Splits Up : General Cinema the Winner in Split-Up of Carter Hawley". Los Angeles Times.
- Silverstein, Stuart (October 10, 1990). "Carter Hawley Posts Loss of $26 Million; Will Cut Staff". Los Angeles Times.
- Silverstein, Stuart (February 11, 1991). "Carter Hawley Files for Chapter 11 : Retailing: The Los Angeles-based company's stores will remain open while it seeks to reorganize.". Los Angeles Times.
Among the hardest hit by Carter Hawley's bankruptcy court filing could be many of its 29,000 employees, particularly about 14,000 who have participated in the company's 401(k) savings plan. The plan, designed both to augment employees' pension benefits and to strengthen the company's takeover defenses, holds 45% of Carter Hawley's stock.
- Stevenson, Richard W. (February 12, 1991). "Chapter 11 For Carter Hawley". New York Times.
- White, George (July 8, 1992). "Carter Hawley Hale Files Reorganization Plan : Retailing: Broadway's parent company moves to eliminate debt and emerge from bankruptcy protection.". Los Angeles Times.
- Knudson, Max B. (September 10, 1992). "Mervyn's Chain Will Buy 2 Stores From Weinstocks". Deseret News.
- "Dillard Department Stores to Open Shop at Fashion Place". Deseret News. March 25, 1993.
- Knudson, Max B. (June 16, 1994). "Ogden Zcmi to Move Across Street In Mall". Deseret News.
- White, George (February 10, 1993). "CEO Named at Carter Hawley Hale : Retailing: The Broadway's parent firm chooses a successor to Philip Hawley to oversee a hoped-for turnaround.". Los Angeles Times.
- White, George (June 17, 1994). "Broadway's Make-Over : New CEO Remodels Stores and the Corporate Culture". Los Angeles Times.
Carter Hawley operates 52 Broadway, 22 Emporium and nine Weinstocks stores in five states.
- "Retailing". Los Angeles Times. June 18, 1994.
- Schmeltzer, John (August 8, 1995). "Zell Can't Make A Hit Out Of Broadway Stores: Lending Firms Cut Off 82-unit Chain In West: Stock Price Plummets". Chicago Tribune.
- "Bankruptcy Fears Take Big Toll On Broadway Stores' Shares". New York Times. August 8, 1995.
- "Federated to Buy Broadway Stores For $1.6 Billion". New York Times. August 15, 1995.
- White, George & Silverstein, Stuart (August 15, 1995). "Federated Stores to Buy Broadway in $373-Million Deal : Retail: Merger would erase the Broadway name from Southland scene, likely spur closures, layoffs. Many sites would be converted to Bullock's, Macy's, Bloomingdale's.". Los Angeles Times.
Broadway Stores operates 52 stores under The Broadway name--41 of them in California and the rest in Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado. The company also operates 21 Emporium and eight Weinstocks stores in Northern California. Broadway Stores also operates a Weinstocks store in Nevada.
- White, George & Apodaca, Patrice (October 13, 1995). "All Bullock's Stores to Be Converted to Macy's". Los Angeles Times.
- White, George (November 18, 1995). "Broadway to Convert 40 in Store Chain to Macy's : Retailing: New owner Federated also plans to sell nine sites to Sears and seeks buyers for 10 more facing closure in early 1996.". Los Angeles Times.
- Callender, Ealena (February 16, 1996). "Going Upscale : Beverly Center Broadway Will Become Bloomingdale's". Los Angeles Times.
- Nolte, Carl (September 24, 2006). "Westfield San Francisco Centre / 'Queen of Market Street' is all dressed up, ready for grand debut". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Pettera, Angela (March 15, 2001). "Mastro's to Serve Steaks at Former Chasen's Site". Los Angeles Times.
- "$12,000,000 Dept. Store Merger Closed On Coast: Gapwell's Of Oakland, Cal., And Emporium Of San Francisco Combined As H. C. Capwell Department Stores Co., Effective June 1—To Erect Oakland Building Containing Almost 12 Acres Of Floor Space.". Women's Wear Daily. 34 (63). March 17, 1927. p. 1.
Announcement made in Oakland by H. C. Capwell and here by the executive board of the Emporium Co. reveal the merger of the H.C. Capwell organization of Oakland and the Emporium of San Francisco, involving $12,000,000. The original Emporium was opened in May 1896, on a cooperative plan whereby each department was operated by a different owner. In July, 1897, the present Emporium was organized as a single corporation under the leadership of F. W. Dohrmann.Link via ProQuest.
- "Emporium Corporation". Wall Street Journal. October 10, 1927. p. 5. (subscription required (. ))
A. B. C. Dohrmann, president of Emporium Corp. announces the formation of Emporium, Capwell Co., to hold common stock of Emporium Corp., capital stock of H. C. Capwell Co., of Oakland, stock of realty subsidiaries, formed or to be formed, and stock of The Eighth Street Store.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
- Monks, Robert A. G. & Minow, Nell (2008). Corporate Governance (4 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 503–513. ISBN 9781405171069. OCLC 124075003.