Castell Dinas Brân
Castell Dinas Brân is a medieval castle occupying a prominent hilltop site above the town of Llangollen in Denbighshire, Wales. The presently visible castle was probably built in the 1260s by Gruffydd Maelor II, a Prince of Powys Fadog, on the site of several earlier structures, including an Iron Age hillfort.
Dinas Brân has been variously translated as the "crow's fortress" or "fortress of Brân", with Brân as the name of an individual or of a nearby stream. An English name, "Crow Castle", has also been used since at least the 18th century.
The first building placed at Dinas Brân was not the castle which now stands in ruins on top of the hill, but an Iron Age hillfort built around 600 BC. An earthen rampart was constructed probably topped by a wooden palisade and this was further protected by a deep ditch on the shallower southern slope. The walls of the hillfort encircled a village of roundhouses. Dinas Brân is one of many hillforts in this part of Wales; Moel y Gaer is just a couple of miles to the north-west near the Horseshoe Pass, and another is close by at Y Gardden in Ruabon to the east. There are many others on the Clwydian Hills further to the north and in the Marches to the south.
Dinas Brân is in what was once the ancient Kingdom of Powys. The last Prince of Powys, Gruffydd Maelor, died in 1191 and the kingdom was subsequently divided into Powys Fadog in the north and Powys Wenwynwyn in the south. His son, Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor, lord of Powys Fadog, founded the nearby Valle Crucis Abbey.
Although no specific archaeological evidence has been found, some records suggest Madog ap Gruffydd ruled from Dinas Brân. If a structure did exist it would have been a wooden fortification probably consisting of a wooden palisade surrounding a hall and other buildings. These early records further say the castle was destroyed by fire, following which a new castle was built on the same site, therefore little prospect for finding any archaeological evidence of the early building remains.
An even earlier structure has been suggested, belonging to Elisedd ap Gwylog from the 8th century (Ried, 1973). It was this Elisedd who is named on the Pillar of Eliseg and is one of the founders of the kingdom of Powys, but again no physical evidence for any structure at Dinas Brân has been found.
The castle visible today was probably built by Gruffydd II ap Madog son of Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor sometime in the 1260s. At the time Gruffydd II ap Madog was an ally of Prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd Prince of Wales, with Powys acting as a buffer state between Llywelyn's heartland of Gwynedd and England. Dinas Brân was one of several castles being built following the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery which had secured Wales for Llywelyn, free from English interference. Indeed, the castle at Dolforwyn Castle near Newtown ordered to be built by Llywelyn around the same time has some similarities to Dinas Brân and may have been the work of the same master mason. 
Gruffudd died in 1269 or 1270 and the castle passed down to his four sons. Madoc the eldest son was the senior, but each of the sons may have had apartments at the castle. The peace between Llywelyn and Edward did not last long and in 1276 war started between England and Wales. Edward's larger armies soon invaded Wales and the support for Llywelyn crumbled. Two of the brothers made peace with Edward, the second brother Llywelyn and Madoc. However, the castle was not in Madoc's control as the surrender document with the English refers to conditions relating to the recapture of Dinas Brân. Meanwhile, Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln arrived in Oswestry with forces to capture Dinas Brân. As soon as he had arrived he was told that the defenders of the castle, probably the younger brothers Owain and Gruffudd - who were still allies of Llywelyn Prince of Wales, had set fire to and abandoned the castle. The reason for this action is not clear but it may be that they had no confidence that they could defend the castle against the English forces, and did not want to let it fall intact into Edward's, or their elder brother's hands. The castle was not badly damaged, the fire being mainly limited to the timber structures within the walls and Lincoln recommended to King Edward that the castle be repaired and garrisoned with English troops. Edward placed some troops at the castle at least into the next year 1277 when Llywelyn sued for peace and ordered some repair work to be undertaken.
The history of the castle during the final war which restarted in 1282 is not recorded. It may have been recaptured by the Welsh like many other castles in the early months of the war, but ultimately the English were victorious. Madoc had by now died: the three surviving brothers all fought for Llewelyn, but to no avail. Following the end of the war in October 1282 and the death of Llywelyn, most of Powys Fadog including the castle was granted to John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. Rather than rebuild Dinas Brân, De Warenne choose instead to build a new castle at Holt on the Flintshire, Cheshire border and Dinas Brân continued till the present day a picturesque and romantic ruin.
Dinas Brân is in layout a rectangular castle with the longer sides running east-west. Beyond the northern wall the steep natural slope falls sharply several hundred feet, whilst the southern and eastern walls are defended by a 20 feet deep rock-cut ditch and counterscarp bank. 
At the south-eastern corner where the ditch is at its deepest stands the keep, which looks out onto a relatively easy approach to the castle from the River Dee. The two-storey keep would have been the strongest part of the castle, with its own defended approach through a narrow passage. Next to the keep at the north eastern corner is a gatehouse, which was originally approached by a wooden bridge spanning the ditch. There is however almost no evidence remaining of the bridge and its supporting structure so that the exact configuration remains unclear. The bridge was also overlooked by the keep which allowed archers stationed there to guard the entrance. The Gatehouse had two towers either side of a decorated covered passageway into the castle courtyard.
The Great Hall is sited on the castle's southern side, where some of the more visible remains still stand. This was a large room used for dining and receiving visitors. Its much enlarged windows still look south across the valley and an arched gateway leads from the west end of the room to what was once the Kitchens in the basement of the adjacent apsidal ('D' shaped) tower. This tower, called the Welsh Tower, is a typical feature of Welsh castles of the period. It would have protruded from the castle wall into the defensive ditch and provided archers with a clear view of any attackers attempting to approach the southern wall. The tower had perhaps three storeys with living quarters on the upper floors. In the south western corner was a Postern gate. This was an additional exit from the castle, designed to be used in times of siege to allow the garrison to 'sally' out and attack their besiegers. Fragments of the arch remain as well as the slot for the door's drawbar.
In the 19th century there was a local tradition, recorded by Walter Hawken Tregellas, that at Tower Farm, about a mile from the castle, had formerly stood a tower that was an outwork of the castle defences.
Legends and literature
Whilst the historical record for Dinas Brân is sparse, there are many myths and legends associated with the ancient site.
The popular Welsh song 'Myfanwy' was composed by Joseph Parry and first published in 1875. Parry wrote the music to lyrics written by Richard Davies ('Mynyddog'; 1833–77). The lyrics were probably inspired by the fourteenth-century love-story of Myfanwy Fychan of Castell Dinas Brân, and the poet Hywel ab Einion. That story was also the subject of the popular poem, 'Myfanwy Fychan' (1858), by John Ceiriog Hughes (1832–87).
The castle first literary appearance is in a 12th-century historical document entitled "Fouke le Fitz Waryn," or "The Romance of Fulk Fitzwarine." In this tale the castle, named "Chastiel Bran," is referred to as a ruin during the early years of the Norman Conquest. The tale continues to tell of an arrogant Norman knight, Payn Peveril, who hears that no one has had courage enough to stay overnight inside the castle ruins, for fear of evil spirits. Payn and 15 'knightly followers' determine to stay the night. A storm blows up and an evil, mace-wielding giant called Gogmagog, appears. Payn defends his men against the attacks of the giant with his shield and cross, then stabs Gogmagog with his sword. As the giant is dying he tells of the earlier bravery of King Brân who had built the castle to try to defeat the giant. Despite King Brân's attempts against Gogmagog the King had been forced to flee and since then the giant had terrorised all the land around for many years. The giant also tells of a great treasury of idols buried at Dinas Brân which includes swans, peacocks, horses and a huge golden ox but dies without revealing its location.
The etymology of the name Dinas Brân has been debated since at least the 17th century.
In modern times it sometimes incorrectly translated as the City of Crows: the word dinas ("city" in modern Welsh) means "fortified place" or "fortress" in Middle Welsh, while brân is the Welsh for "crow", singular, (plural: brain), suggesting a meaning "the crow's fortress".
An alternative theory is that Brân is a personal name. Humphrey Llwyd and William Camden both suggested it came from that of a Gaulish chieftain, "Brennus". There is a legend which says that Brân was a Cornish prince, the son of the Duke of Cornwall, while another suggests Brân could be named for King Brân Fendigaid (the Blessed) also called Bendigeidfran, a Celtic God who appears in both Welsh and Irish mythology. Camden also suggested the name was simply derived from the word bryn, "hill".
A further suggestion is that Brân simply refers to a mountain stream of the same name which originated in the Eglwyseg Rocks and ran at the northern foot of the hill, a suggestion made by Thomas Pennant amongst others. The 17th century scholar Edward Lhuyd, in Adversaria, confirmed that to his knowledge the name Brân came from "the brook of this name by Lhangollen". As with several other streams in Wales, the word Brân was applied to the brook apparently due to the black colour of its water.
The castle is known in English as "Crow Castle". This form of the name has been used since at least the 18th century, having been recorded in Gough's edition of William Camden's Britannia. By the mid 19th century this was the form of the name said to be used by most of the inhabitants of Llangollen, where there was an inn of the same name.
Visiting the castle
The castle may be approached from two directions. From Llangollen the path starts from Canal Bridge and runs beside Ysgol Dinas Brân. It gradually climbs past several cottages before opening out onto the lower slopes of the hill. A zigzag path then climbs to the summit. The other route starts from 'Offa's Dyke Path' on the north western side of the hill. This route is shorter but steeper. Official advice is to equip yourself with stout walking shoes and warm, waterproof clothing before climbing to the castle.
- Tregellas, "Castell Dinas Bran", The Archaeological Journal, 1864, 116
- Britannia, ed. Gough, iii, p.218
- Kightly, 2003
- Cathcart King, Two Castles in Northern Powys: Dinas Bran and Caergwrle", Arch. Camb., CXXIII (1974), 39
- Castell Dinas Bran, RCAHMW
- Tregellas, "Castell Dinas Bran near Llangollen, Denbighshire", Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1865, p.54
- Oman 1926, 1989
- Evans, Letters written during a tour through North Wales in the year 1798, 1804, p.315
- Tregellas, "Castell Dinas Bran near Llangollen, Denbighshire", Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1865, p.51
- Pierce, G. Owen. The place-names of Dinas Powys Hundred, 1968, p.268
- Kightly, Dr. Charles (2003), Dinas Brân Castle, Denbighshire County Council
- Oman, Charles W. C. (1989) , British Castles, Dover Books
- Reid, Alan (1973), The Castles of Wales, ISBN 0-85097-185-3
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