Celestial (Chinese)

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For other uses of "Celestial", see Celestial (disambiguation).

Celestial was a term referring to Chinese emigrants to the United States, Canada, and Australia during the 19th century.[1] The term was widely used in the popular mass media of the day.[2][3] The term is from Celestial Empire (Tianxia, Chinese: 天朝; pinyin: Tiāncháo) a traditional name for China.[4]


  1. ^ "Celestial" capitalized (Celestial Empire, old name for China): of or relating to China or the Chinese Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  2. ^ "The Wyoming Massacre," New York Times (1857-Current file); 6 September 1885; pg. 7, ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2003). Retrieved 12 March 2007.
  3. ^ "The Chinese Massacre," The National Police Gazette, September 19, 1885, no. 418, pg 2.
  4. ^ "Chances in China; Standard Oil Man Says Celestial Kingdom Needs Much American Funds". The New York Times. February 15, 1914.