Central York School District

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Central York School District
More Color Map of York County Pennsylvania School Districts.png
Address
775 Marion Road
York, Pennsylvania, York County 17406
United States
Information
Type Public
School board 9 locally elected members
Superintendent Dr. Michael S. Snell ($143,934 salary in 2009) (salary $148,252 in 2012)
Specialist Kessler, Brent, (salary $102,404 in 2012)
Administrator

Grove, Robert, Asst Superintendent curriculum, instruction (salary $124,980 in 2012)
Mr Brent A Kessler, Business Manager (2010–2014)
Bobbi Billman Director of Human Resources

Julie Randall Romig, Director of Communications and Marketing(salary $61,808 in 2012 $88,000 in 2016)
Principal Snare, Barbara, ES, (salary $112,894 in 2012)
Principal Caufman, Ryan, (salary $108,350 in 2012)
Principal Miller, Charlet, ES, (salary $103,510 in 2012)
Principal Mcmanama, Edmund, (salary $100,239 in 2012)
Head teacher Craig, Beth, (salary $99,595 in 2012)
Staff 342 non teaching staff (2012)
Faculty 347 teachers (2012)[1]
Grades K–12
Age 5 years to 21 years special education
Pupils

5,817 pupils (2014)[2]
5,765 pupils (2012)[3]
5,706 pupils (2010)[4]

5,415 pupils (2006)[5]
 • Kindergarten 441 (2012), 457 (2010)
 • Grade 1 391 (2012), 429
 • Grade 2 436 (2012), 444
 • Grade 3 472 (2012), 455
 • Grade 4 443 (2012), 466
 • Grade 5 473 (2012), 405
 • Grade 6 491 (2012), 441
 • Grade 7 482 (2012), 445
 • Grade 8 397 (2012), 455
 • Grade 9 502 (2012), 509
 • Grade 10 396 (2012), 444
 • Grade 11 425 (2012), 365
 • Grade 12 416 (2012), 391 (2010)
Language English
Campus type Suburban/Rural
Color(s) Orange and Black
Mascot Panthers
Budget

$78,386,727 (2014–15)[6]
$74,810,057 (2013–14)[7]

$74 million (2012–13)[8]
Per pupil spending $12,347.16 in 2010
Per Pupil spending $11,520 in 2008
Website

The Central York School District is a large, suburban, public school district that encompasses 24 square miles (62 km2). Central York School District serves: the Borough of North York and Manchester Township and the greater part of Springettsbury Township in York County, Pennsylvania. According to 2010 federal census data it serves a resident population of 40,000 people.[9] The educational attainment levels for the Central York School District community population (25 years old and over) were 89.7% high school graduates and 29.7% college graduates.[10]

According to the Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center, 31.3% of the District’s pupils lived at 185% or below the Federal Poverty level as shown by their eligibility for the federal free or reduced price school meal programs in 2012.[11] In 2009, the district residents' per capita income was $24,557 a year, while the median family income was $59,079.[12] In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501 [13] and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010.[14] In York County, the median household income was $57,494.[15] By 2013, the median household income in the United States rose to $52,100.[16]

Per District officials, in school year 2007–08, the Central York School District provided basic educational services to 5,500 pupils through the employment of 405 teachers, 285 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 30 administrators. Central York School District received more than $12.9 million in state funding in school year 2007–08. The District provided basic educational services to 5,567 pupils in 2011–12. Central York School District employed: 399 teachers, 294 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 32 administrators during the 2011–12 school year. The District received $14.4 million in state funding in the 2011–12 school year.

Central York School District operates seven schools: Central York High School (9th–12th), Central York Middle School (7th–8th), Hayshire Elementary School (K–3rd), North Hills Elementary School (4th–6th), Roundtown Elementary School (K–3rd), Sinking Springs Elementary School (4th–6th) and Stony Brook Elementary School (K–3rd).

School Calendar[edit]

In May 2010, the school board established a new school calendar that set the number of days at 184. The state requires a minimum of 180 days of school by June 30 each year.[17] The goal was to add 18 hours of teacher continuing education which the teachers must attend.

Governance[edit]

The school district is governed by 9 individually elected board members (serve four-year terms), the Pennsylvania State Board of Education, the Pennsylvania Department of Education and the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[18] The federal government controls programs it funds like Title I funding for low-income children in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act, which mandates the district focus its resources on student success in acquiring reading and math skills. The Superintendent and Business Manager are appointed by the school board. The Superintendent is the chief administrative officer with overall responsibility for all aspects of operations, including education and finance. The Business Manager is responsible for budget and financial operations. Neither of these officials are voting members of the School Board. The School Board enters into individual employment contracts for these positions. In Pennsylvania, public school districts are required to give 150 days notice to the Superintendent regarding renewal of the employment contract.[19]

The Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives Sunshine Review gave the school board and district administration a "D-" for transparency based on a review of "What information can people find on their school district's website". It examined the school district's website for information regarding; taxes, the current budget, meetings, school board members names and terms, contracts, audits, public records information and more.[20]

Academic achievement[edit]

Central York School District was ranked 91st out of 498 Pennsylvania school districts in 2014, by the Pittsburgh Business Times.[21] The ranking is based on the last 3 years of student academic achievement as demonstrated by PSSAs results in: reading, writing, math and science and the three Keystone Exams (literature, Algebra 1, Biology I) in high school.[22] Three school districts were excluded from the ranking because they do not operate high schools (Saint Clair Area School District, Midland Borough School District, Duquesne City School District). The PSSAs are given to all children in grades 3rd through 8th. Adapted PSSA examinations are given to children in the special education programs. Writing exams were given to children in 5th and 8th grades.

Overachievers ranking

In 2013, the Pittsburgh Business Times also reported an Overachievers Ranking for 498 Pennsylvania school districts. Central York ranked 257th. The paper describes the ranking as: "a ranking answers the question – which school districts do better than expectations based upon economics? This rank takes the Honor Roll rank and adds the percentage of students in the district eligible for free and reduced-price lunch into the formula. A district finishing high on this rank is smashing expectations, and any district above the median point is exceeding expectations."[28]

  • 2012 – 257th
  • 2010 – 134th
  • 2009 – 206th

In 2009, the academic achievement of the students of the Central York School District was in the 82nd percentile among 500 Pennsylvania school districts. Scale – (0–99; 100 is state best)[29]

District AYP status history[edit]

In 2012, Central York School District achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status.[30] In 2011, Central York School District achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In 2011, 94 percent of the 500 Pennsylvania public school districts achieved the No Child Left Behind Act progress level of 72% of students reading on grade level and 67% of students demonstrating on grade level math. In 2011, 46.9 percent of Pennsylvania school districts achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) based on student performance. An additional 37.8 percent of Pennsylvania public school districts made AYP based on a calculated method called safe harbor, 8.2 percent on the growth model and 0.8 percent on a two-year average performance.[31][32] Central York School District achieved AYP status each year from 2004 to 2010, while in 2003 the District was in Warning status due to lagging student achievement.[33]

Graduation rate[edit]

In 2014, Central York School District's graduation rate was 94.76% in 2014.[34]

  • 2013 – 93.27%[35]
  • 2012 – 93.55%[36]
  • 2011 – 95%.[37]
  • 2010 – 94%, Pennsylvania Department of Education issued a new, 4-year cohort graduation rate.[38]
According to prior method graduation rate calculations
  • 2010 – 97%[39]
  • 2009 – 98%
  • 2008 – 97%
  • 2007 – 97%[40]

High school[edit]

Central York High School is located at 601 Mundis Mill Road, York. In 2014, enrollment was reported as 1,712 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 23.19% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 7% of pupils received special education services, while 5.6% of pupils were identified as gifted.[41] The school employed 107 teachers.[42] Per the PA Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2010, Central York High School had 1,667 pupils enrolled in grades 9th through 12th, with 307 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced-price lunch due to family poverty. The school employed 106 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 15:1.[43] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 4 teachers were rated "Non‐Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[44]

2014 School Performance Profile

Central York High School achieved 86.5 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature, 79% were on grade level. In Algebra 1, 66.6% showed on grade level skills at the end of the course. In Biology, 75.7% demonstrated on grade level science understanding at the end of the course.[45][46] Statewide, the percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in Algebra I increased to 39.7% to 40.1%. The percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in reading/literature declined to 52.5%. The percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in biology improved from 39.7% to 41.4%.[47]

According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,134 of 2,947 Pennsylvania public schools (72 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher.[48] Fifty-three percent of schools statewide received lower SPP scores compared with last year's, while 46 percent improved. A handful were unchanged.[49][50]

2013 School Performance Profile

Central York High School achieved out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature, 87.06% were on grade level. In Algebra 1, 83.42% showed on grade level skills. In Biology, 75% showed on grade level science understanding.[51] According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,181 public schools (less than 73 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher. Pennsylvania 11th grade students no longer take the PSSAs. Instead, beginning in 2012, they take the Keystone Exams at the end of the associated course.[52]

AYP history

In 2012, Central York High School declined to Warning AYP status due to low student achievement in mathematics.[53]

  • 2011 – achieved AYP status.[54]
  • 2010 – achieved Making Progress: in School Improvement I due to chronic, low academic achievement.[55]
  • 2009 – declined to School Improvement I AYP status, due to lagging student achievement.[56] The administration was required to develop a plan to raise student academic achievement by the PDE. A copy of the plan was submitted for approval.
  • 2008 – declined to Warning AYP status[57]
  • 2007 – achieved AYP status
PSSA Results:

Pennsylvania System of School Assessments, commonly called PSSAs are No Child Left Behind Act related examinations which were administered from 2003 through 2012, in all Pennsylvania public high schools. The exams were administered in the Spring of each school year. The goal was for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014. The tests focused on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science. The Science exam included content in science, technology, ecology and the environmental studies. The mathematics exam included: algebra I, algebra II, geometry and trigonometry. The standards were first published in 1998 and are mandated by the Pennsylvania State Board of Education.[58] In 2013, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania changed its high school assessments to the Keystone Exams in Algebra 1, Reading/literature and Biology1. The exams are given at the end of the course, rather than all in the spring of the student's 11th grade year.[59]

11th Grade Reading:
  • 2012 – 76% on grade level, (11% below basic). State – 67% of 11th graders are on grade level.[60]
  • 2011 – 81%, 50% advanced. State – 67%[61]
  • 2010 – 81%, 43% advanced. State – 67% [62]
  • 2009 – 69%, (14% below basic). State – 65%[29]
  • 2008 – 73%, State – 65% [63]
  • 2007 – 74%, State – 65%
11th Grade Math:
  • 2012 – 66% on grade level (17% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 59% of 11th graders are on grade level.[64]
  • 2011 – 72% (12% below basic). State – 59%
  • 2010 – 64%, (20% below basic). State – 59%[65]
  • 2009 – 55%, (22% below basic). State – 56% [66]
  • 2008 – 55%, State – 55% [67]
  • 2007 – 64%, State – 53%
11th Grade Science:
  • 2012 – 45% on grade level (11% below basic). State – 42% of 11th graders were on grade level.[68]
  • 2011 – 47% (11% below basic). State – 39%
  • 2010 – 53% (12% below basic). State – 39%
  • 2009 – 43% (13% below basic). State – 40%
  • 2008 – 47%, State – 39%[69]

Science in Motion Central York High School took advantage of a state program called Science in Motion which brought college professors and sophisticated science equipment to the school to raise science awareness and to provide inquiry-based experiences for the students. The Science in Motion program was funded by a state appropriation and cost the school nothing to participate.[70] The School worked with Gettysburg College to provide the experiences.

Dual enrollment[edit]

Central York High School offers a dual enrollment program. This state program permits high school students to take courses, at local higher education institutions, to earn college credits. Students remain enrolled at their high school. The courses count towards high school graduation requirements and towards earning a college degree. The students continue to have full access to activities and programs at their high school, including the graduation ceremony. The college credits are offered at a deeply discounted rate. The state offers a small grant to assist students in costs for tuition, fees and books.[71] Under the Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement, many Pennsylvania colleges and universities accept these credits for students who transfer to their institutions.[72] For the 2009–10 funding year, the school district received a state grant of $15,342 for the program.[73]

Graduation requirements[edit]

Graduation requirements are that each student must: complete a course of study to include 28 credits, complete a graduation culminating project 0.5 credit, and demonstrate proficiency in reading, writing, and math.[74] The School Board has determined that a student must earn credits: Language Arts – 4 credits, Social Studies – 4 credits, Mathematics – 4 credits, Science – 4 credits, Physical Education/Health/Driver Education – 2 credits, 21st Century Literacy – 1 credit, and Academy Designated Courses* & Free Electives – 8.5 credits.[75]

By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students must complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district.[76] The Graduation Exit Project at Central York School District consists of the Exit Seminar course and an Exit Project Demonstration. By the time the student completes the Exit Project Seminar course, he/she will be prepared for the Exit Demonstration.[77] Effective with the graduating class of 2017, the Pennsylvania Board of Education eliminated the state mandate that students complete a culminating project in order to graduate.[78]

By Pennsylvania School Board regulations, beginning with the class of 2017, public school students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, and English Literature by passing the Keystone Exams.[79][80][81] For the class of 2019, a composition exam will be added. For the class of 2020, passing a civics and government exam will be added to the graduation requirements.[82] In 2011, Pennsylvania high school students field tested the Algebra 1, Biology and English Lit exams. The statewide results were: Algebra 1 – 38% on grade level, Biology –35% on grade level, and English Lit – 49% on grade level.[83] Individual student, school or district reports were not made public, although they were reported to district officials by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Students identified as having special needs and qualifying for an Individual Educational Program (IEP) may graduate by meeting the requirements of their IEP.

College remediation[edit]

According to a Pennsylvania Department of Education study released in January 2009, 30% of Central York Senior High School graduates required remediation in mathematics and or reading before they were prepared to take college level courses in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education or community colleges.[84] Less than 66% of Pennsylvania high school graduates, who enroll in a four-year college in Pennsylvania, will earn a bachelor's degree within six years. Among Pennsylvania high school graduates pursuing an associate degree, only one in three graduate in three years.[85] Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, one in three recent high school graduates who attend Pennsylvania's public universities and community colleges takes at least one remedial course in math, reading or English.

SAT scores[edit]

In 2014, Central York School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 498. The Math average score was 519. The Writing average score was 488.[86] Statewide in Pennsylvania, Verbal Average Score was 497. The Math average score was 504. The Writing average score was 480. The College Board also reported that nationwide scores were: 497 in reading, 513 in math and 487 in writing.[87]

In 2013, 311 Central York School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 498. The Math average score was 516. The Writing average score was 482. The College Board reported that statewide scores were: 494 in reading, 504 in math and 482 in writing. The nationwide SAT results were the same as in 2012.[88]

In 2012, 320 Central York School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 499. The Math average score was 509. The Writing average score was 491. The statewide Verbal SAT exams results were: Verbal 491, Math 501, Writing 480. In the USA, 1.65 million students took the exams achieving scores: Verbal 496, Math 514, Writing 488. According to the College Board the maximum score on each section was 800, and 360 students nationwide scored a perfect 2,400.

In 2011, 292 Central York High School students took the SAT exams. The district's Verbal Average Score was 504. The Math average score was 517. The Writing average score was 487.[89] Pennsylvania ranked 40th among states with SAT scores: Verbal – 493, Math – 501, Writing – 479.[90] In the United States 1.65 million students took the exam in 2011. They averaged 497 (out of 800) verbal, 514 math and 489 in writing.[91]

AP Courses[edit]

In 2014, Central York High School offered 12 Advanced Placement (AP) courses at a higher cost than regular courses. Students may take the AP exam at the end of the AP course. The fee for each AP Exam is $91 (2014).[92] The school normally retains $9 of that fee as a rebate to help with administrative costs. In 2012, the fee was $89 per test per pupil. Students have the option of taking College Board approved courses and then taking the College Board's examination in the Spring. Students, who achieve a 3 or better on the exam, may be awarded college credits at US universities and colleges. Each higher education institution sets its own standards about what level of credits are awarded to a student based on their AP exam score. Most higher education give credits for scores of 4 or 5. Some schools also give credits for scores of 3. High schools give credits towards graduation to students who take the school's AP class. At Central York High School just 39% of students who took an AP course earned a 3 or better on the exam.[93]

Middle school[edit]

Central York Middle School is located at 1950 North Hills Road, York. In 2014, enrollment was 983 pupils, in grades 7th and 8th, with 28% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 11% of pupils received special education services, while 3% of pupils were identified as gifted.[94]

In 2010 the school had 882 pupils enrolled in grades 7th through 8th, with 179 receiving a federal free or reduced-price lunch due to family poverty. The school employed 63 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 14:1.[95] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[96] Central York Middle School employs 4 full-time Health and Physical Education teachers: Jason Merritt, Linda Phillips, Jessica Rineer, and Micheal Snell, Jr. In 2013, the CYMS Physical Education Staff began a customized approach to allow students a voice and choice in their physical education experience. Activities and units taught are chosen by students and instructed accordingly.

2014 School Performance Profile

Central York Middle School achieved 77.8 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature, 85% were on grade level. In Algebra 1/Math, 87.8% showed on grade level mathematics skills. In Science, 73.8% of 8th graders showed on grade level science understanding. In writing, 82% of the 8th grade students demonstrated on grade level writing skills.[97]

2013 School Performance Profile

Central York Middle School achieved 75.1 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, writing, mathematics and science achievement. In reading, 86.58% of the students were on grade level. In Mathematics/Algebra 1, 88% of the students showed on grade level skills. In Science, only 69% of the 8th graders demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, 86% of the 8th grade students demonstrated on grade level writing skills.[98]

AYP status

In 2012, Central York Middle School achieved AYP status.[99] In 2011 the school declined to Warning status due to lagging math achievement by special education students.[100] In 2009 and 2010, the middle school achieved AYP status.[101] In 2009–2010, the attendance rate was 96%, while in 2008–2009 it was 95%.[102]

PSSAs
8th Grade Science
  • 2012 – 67% on grade level (13% below basic). State – 59%
  • 2011 – 68% (14% below basic). State – 58%
  • 2010 – 76% (11% below basic). State – 57%
  • 2009 – 65%, State – 55%.
  • 2008 – 60%, State – 52%

Hayshire Elementary School[edit]

Hayshire Elementary School is located at 2801 Hayshire Drive, York. In 2014, Hayshire Elementary School's enrollment was pupils in grades kindergarten through 3rd, with 42% of pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price meals due to family poverty. Additionally, 10.8% of the pupils receive special education services, while 1% are identified as gifted.[108] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated highly qualified under No Child Left Behind. The school provides full day kindergarten since 2010.[109] The school is a federally designated Title I school.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2010, Hayshire Elementary School reported an enrollment of 649 pupils in grades kindergarten through 3rd, with 195 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced-price lunch due to family poverty. The school employed 44 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 14.58:1.[110] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[111]

2014 School Performance Profile

Hayshire Elementary School achieved a score of 83.6 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading and mathematics achievement. In 2013–14, only 78% of the students were reading on grade level in 3rd grade. In math, 75% were on grade level in 3rd grades.[112]

2013 School Performance Profile

Hayshire Elementary School achieved a score of 78.8 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2012–13, only 72.9% of the students were reading on grade level in 3rd grade. In math, 78.71% were on grade level in 3rd grade.[113]

AYP history

In 2012, Hayshire Elementary School achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status. In 2012, 86% of the 3rd grade students were reading on grade level. In math, 85% of the students in 3rd grades were on grade level and 42% scored advanced.[114] In 2011, Hayshire Elementary School declined to Warning AYP status due to lagging student achievement.[115] The school achieved AYP status in 2009 and 2010[116]

In 2012, only 77% of the 3rd grade students were reading on grade level. In math, 86% of the students in 3rd grades were on grade level and 42% scored advanced.[117]

In 2011, only 77% of the 3rd grade students were reading on grade level. In math, 84% of the students in 3rd grades were on grade level and 38% scored advanced.[118]

North Hills Elementary School[edit]

North Hills Elementary School is located at 1330 North Hills Road, York. In 2014, the School's enrollment was 730 pupils in grades 4th through 6th, with 42% of pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price meals due to family poverty. Additionally, 14% of the pupils receive special education services, while 1.6% are identified as gifted.[119] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated highly qualified under No Child Left Behind.[120] The school is a federally designated Title I school.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2010, the school reported an enrollment of 565 pupils in grades 3rd through 6th, with 156 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced-price lunch due to family poverty. The school employed 36.66 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 15:1.[121] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[122]

2014 School Performance Profile

North Hills Elementary School achieved a score of 76.7 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2013–14, only 68% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 4th through 6th. In math, 80% were on grade level (4th–6th grades). In 4th grade science, just 77% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, only 53.5% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level skills.[123]

2013 School Performance Profile

North Hills Elementary School achieved a score of 76.6 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2012–13, only 67% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 4th through 6th. In math, 79% were on grade level (4th–6th grades). In 4th grade science, just 69.4% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, only 59% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level skills.[124]

AYP history

In 2012, North Hills Elementary School achieved AYP status.[125] In 2011, North Hills Elementary School declined to Warning status due to lagging reading scores. In 2010, North Hills Elementary School achieved AYP status.[126] The school achieved AYP in 2009.[127]

In 2012, only 71% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd through 6th. In math, 83% of the students in 3rd through 6th grades were on grade level and 54% scored advanced. In 4th grade science, 73% of the pupils were on grade level. In 2011, only 72% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd through 6th. In math, 86% of the students in 3rd through 6th grades were on grade level and 53% scored advanced. In 4th grade science, 80% of the pupils were on grade level.[128]

Roundtown Elementary schools[edit]

Roundtown Elementary School is located at 570 Church Road, York. In 2014, the School's enrollment was 536 pupils in grades kindergarten through 3rd, with 16.4% of pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price meals due to family poverty. Additionally, 9% of the pupils receive special education services, while less than 1% are identified as gifted.[129] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated highly qualified under No Child Left Behind. The school provides half day kindergarten.[130] The school is not a federally designated Title I school.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2010, the school reported an enrollment of 521 pupils in grades kindergarten through 3rd, with 49 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced-price lunch. The school employed 32 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 16:1.[131] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[132]

2014 School Performance Profile

Roundtown Elementary School achieved a score of 93.9 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2013–14, 89% of the students were reading on grade level in 3rd grade. In math, 94.5% were on grade level 3rd grade.[133]

2013 School Performance Profile

Roundtown Elementary School achieved a score of 95.2 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2012–13, 93.43% of the students were reading on grade level in 3rd grade. In math, 94% were on grade level 3rd grade.[134]

AYP history

In years 2010 through 2012, Roundtown Elementary School achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status.[135] In 2012, 84% of the 3rd grade students were reading on grade level with 35% advanced. In math, 93% of the students in 3rd grade were on grade level and 66% scored advanced.[136] In 2011, 93% of the 3rd grade students were reading on grade level with 51% advanced. In math, 95% of the students in 3rd grade were on grade level and 69% scored advanced.[137] The school also achieved AYP in 2009.

Sinking Springs Elementary School[edit]

Sinking Springs Elementary School is located at 2850 Susquehanna Trail, York. In 2014, the Sinking Springs Elementary School's enrollment was 678 pupils in grades 4th through 6th, with 14.9% of pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price meals due to family poverty. Additionally, 12% of the pupils receive special education services, while 3.9% are identified as gifted.[138] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated highly qualified under No Child Left Behind.[139] The school is not a federally designated Title I school.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2010, the school reported an enrollment of 748 pupils in grades 4th through 6th, with 125 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced-price lunch. The school employed 37.66 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 20:1.[140] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[141]

2014 School Performance Profile

Sinking Springs Elementary School achieved a score of 80.2 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2013–14, 84% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 4th through 6th. In math, 87.7% were on grade level (4th–6th grades). In 4th grade science, 90% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, only 72% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level skills.[142]

2013 School Performance Profile

Sinking Springs Elementary School achieved a score of 91.7 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2012–13, 82% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 4th through 6th. In math, 89.49% were on grade level (4th–6th grades). In 4th grade science, 92.8% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, 82% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level skills.[143]

AYP history

In 2009 through 2012, Sinking Springs Elementary School achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status.[144]

In 2012, 87% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 4th through 6th with 55% advanced. In math, 93% of the students in 4th through 6th grades were on grade level and 74% scored advanced. In 4th grade science, 92% of the pupils were on grade level with 60% achieving advanced.[145] In 2011, 87% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 4th through 6th. In math, 95% of the students in 4th through 6th grades were on grade level and 71% scored advanced. In 4th grade science, 92% of the pupils were on grade level with 54% achieving advanced.[146]

Stony Brook Elementary School[edit]

Stony Brook Elementary School is located at 250 Silver Spur Drive, York. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2010, the school reported an enrollment of 555 pupils in grades kindergarten through 3rd, with 156 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced-price lunch due to family poverty. The school employed 34.5 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 16:1.[147] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[148] In years 2010 through 2012, Stony Brook Elementary School achieved AYP status.[149] In 2011, 82% of the students were reading on grade level in 3rd grade. In math, 85% of the students in 3rd grade were on grade level and 56% scored advanced. In 2011, 88% of the students were reading on grade level in 3rd grade. In math, 84% of the students in 3rd grade were on grade level and 43% scored advanced.[150] The school also achieved AYP in 2009.

Special education[edit]

In December 2012, Central York School District administration reported that 589 pupils or 9% of the district's pupils received Special Education services, with 45% of the identified students having a specific learning disability.[151]

In December 2010, the district administration reported that 556 pupils or 9% of the district's pupils received Special Education services. Of those identified, 54% had a specific learning disability. In December 2009, the district administration reported that 567 pupils or 10% of the district's pupils received Special Education services.[152]

The District engages in identification procedures to ensure that eligible students receive an appropriate educational program consisting of special education and related services, individualized to meet student needs. At no cost to the parents, these services are provided in compliance with state and federal law; and are reasonably calculated to yield meaningful educational benefit and student progress. To identify students who may be eligible for special education, various screening activities are conducted on an ongoing basis. These screening activities include: review of group-based data (cumulative records, enrollment records, health records, report cards, ability and achievement test scores); hearing, vision, motor, and speech/language screening; and review by the Instructional Support Team or Student Assistance Team. When screening results suggest that the student may be eligible, the District seeks parental consent to conduct a multidisciplinary evaluation. Parents who believe their child is eligible for services may verbally request a multidisciplinary evaluation from a professional employee of the District or contact the Department of Special Education.[153]

The IDEA 2004 requires each school entity to publish a notice to parents, in newspapers or other media, including the student handbook and website regarding the availability of screening and intervention services and how to access them.

In 2007, Pennsylvania Secretary of Education Gerald Zahorchak testified before the Pennsylvania House Education Committee regarding full day kindergarten. He claimed that districts which offered the programs would see a significant decrease in special education students due to early identification and early intervention. He asserted the high cost of full day kindergarten would be recouped by Districts in lower special education costs.[154] Central York School District has not seen a reduction in special education costs.

In 2010, the state of Pennsylvania provided $1,026,815,000 for special education services. This funding is in addition to the state's basic education per pupil funding, as well as, all other state and federal funding.[155] The Pennsylvania Special Education funding system assumes that 16% of the district’s students receive special education services. It also assumes that each student’s needs accrue the same level of costs.[156] The state requires each district to have a three-year special education plan to meet the unique needs of its special education students.[157] Overidentification of students, in order to increase state funding, has been an issue in the Commonwealth. Some districts have more than 20% of its students receiving special education services while others have 10% supported through special education.[158] The state requires each public school district and charter school to have a three-year special education plan to meet the unique needs of its special education students.[159] In 2012, the Obama Administration's US Department of Education issued a directive requiring schools include students with disabilities in extracurricular activities, including sports.[160]

Central York School District received a $1,911,435 supplement for special education services in 2010.[161] For the 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14 school years, all Pennsylvania public school districts received the same level of funding for special education that they received in 2010–11. This level funding is provided regardless of changes in the number of pupils who need special education services and regardless of the level of services the respective students required.[162] In 2014–15, Central York School District received an increase to $1,950,039 in state special education funding.[163][164]

Additionally, the state provides supplemental funding for extraordinarily impacted students. The District must apply for this added funding.

Gifted education[edit]

Central York School District Administration reported that 233 or 4.17% of its students were gifted in 2009. The highest percentage of gifted students reported among all 500 school districts and 100 public charter schools in Pennsylvania was North Allegheny School District with 15.5% of its students identified as gifted.[165] By law, the district must provide mentally gifted programs at all grade levels. The referral process for a gifted evaluation can be initiated by teachers or parents by contacting the student’s building principal and requesting an evaluation. All requests must be made in writing. To be eligible for mentally gifted programs in Pennsylvania, a student must have a cognitive ability of at least 130 as measured on a standardized ability test by a certified school psychologist. Other factors that indicate giftedness will also be considered for eligibility.[166][167]

Wellness policy[edit]

The Central York School Board established a district wellness policy in 2006 – Policy 246.[168] The policy deals with nutritious meals served at school, the control of access to some foods and beverages during school hours, age appropriate nutrition education for all students, and physical education for students K–12. The policy is in response to state mandates and federal legislation (P.L. 108 - 265). The law dictates that each school district participating in a program authorized by the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq) or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq) "shall establish a local school wellness policy by School Year 2006."

The legislation placed the responsibility of developing a wellness policy at the local level so the individual needs of each district can be addressed. According to the requirements for the Local Wellness Policy, school districts must set goals for nutrition education, physical activity, campus food provision, and other school-based activities designed to promote student wellness. Additionally, districts were required to involve a broad group of individuals in policy development and to have a plan for measuring policy implementation. Districts were offered a choice of levels of implementation for limiting or prohibiting low nutrition foods on the school campus. In final implementation these regulations prohibit some foods and beverages on the school campus.[169] The Pennsylvania Department of Education required the district to submit a copy of the policy for approval.

Central York School District offers both a free school breakfast and a free or reduced-price lunch to children in low income families. All students attending the school can eat breakfast and lunch. Children from families with incomes at or below 130 percent of the federal poverty level are provided a breakfast and lunch at no cost to the family. Children from families with incomes between 130 and 185 percent of the federal poverty level can be charged no more than 30 cents per breakfast. A foster child whose care and placement is the responsibility of the State or who is placed by a court with a caretaker household is eligible for both a free breakfast and a free lunch. Runaway, homeless and Migrant Youth are also automatically eligible for free meals.[170] The meals are partially funded with federal dollars through the United States Department of Agriculture.[171]

In 2013, the US Department of Agriculture issued new restrictions to foods in public schools. The rules apply to foods and beverages sold on all public school district campuses during the day. They limit vending machine snacks to a maximum of 200 calories per item. Additionally, all snack foods sold at school must meet competitive nutrient standards, meaning they must have fruits, vegetables, dairy or protein in them or contain at least 10 percent of the daily value of fiber, calcium, potassium, and Vitamin D.[172] In order to comply with the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 all US public school districts are required to raise the price of their school lunches to $2.60 regardless of the actual cost of providing the lunch.[173] The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 mandates that Districts raise their full pay lunch prices every year until the price of non-subsidized lunches equals the amount the federal government reimburses schools for free meals. That subsidy in 2013–2014 was $2.93.

In 2014, President Obama ordered a prohibition of advertisements for unhealthy foods on public school campuses during the school day.[174] The Food and Drug Administration requires that students take milk as their beverage at lunch. In accordance with this law, any student requesting water in place of milk with their lunch must present a written request, signed by a doctor, documenting the need for water instead of milk.[175][176]

Central York School District provides health services as mandated by the Commonwealth and the federal government. Nurses are available in each building to conduct annual health screenings (data reported to the PDE and state Department of Health) and to dispense prescribed medications to students during the school day. Students can be excluded from school unless they comply with all the State Department of Health’s extensive immunization mandates. School nurses monitor each pupil for this compliance.[177][178] Nurses also monitor each child's weight.[179]

Highmark Healthy High 5 grant[edit]

In 2011, 2 schools Central York School District received funding through a Highmark Healthy High 5 grant. Central York Middle School received $8,764.00 which was used to implement a fitness and weight training program for all students. Sinking Springs Elementary School received $9,984.00 which was used to implement a stationary bike program for all students.[180] Beginning in 2006, Highmark Foundation engaged in a 5-year, $100 million program to promote lifelong healthy behaviors in children and adolescents through local nonprofits and schools.

Bullying policy and school safety[edit]

Central York School District administration reported there were zero incidents of bullying in the District in 2012. Additionally, there was an assault on a student and no sexual incidents involving students. The local law enforcement was involved in twenty-one (21) incidents at the schools, with fifteen (15) arrests.[181][182] Each year the school safety data is reported by the all Pennsylvania public school districts to the Safe School Center which then publishes the compiled reports online. Nationally, nearly 20% of pupils report being bullied at school.[183]

In 2009, the administration reported there were two incidents of bullying in the district.[184][185]

The Central York School Board adopted a policy in October 2010 which prohibits bullying by district students and the faculty. The policy defines bullying and cyberbullying.[186] The Board directs that complaints of bullying shall be investigated promptly, and corrective action shall be taken when allegations are verified. No reprisals or retaliation shall occur as a result of good faith reports of bullying. The board expects staff members to be responsible to maintain an educational environment free from all forms of bullying. All Pennsylvania schools are required to have an anti-bullying policy incorporated into their Code of Student Conduct. The policy must identify disciplinary actions for bullying and designate a school staff person to receive complaints of bullying. The policy must be available on the school's website and posted in every classroom. All Pennsylvania public schools must provide a copy of its anti-bullying policy to the Office for Safe Schools every year, and shall review their policy every three years. Additionally, the district must conduct an annual review of that policy with students.[187] The Center for Schools and Communities works in partnership with the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime & Delinquency and the Pennsylvania Department of Education to assist schools and communities as they research, select and implement bullying prevention programs and initiatives.[188]

Education standards relating to student safety and antiharassment programs are described in the 10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention in the Pennsylvania Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education.[189]

Budget[edit]

Pennsylvania public school districts budget and expend funds according to procedures mandated by the General Assembly and the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE). An annual operating budget is prepared by school district administrative officials. A uniform form is furnished by the PDE and submitted to the board of school directors for approval prior to the beginning of each fiscal year on July 1.

Under Pennsylvania’s Taxpayer Relief Act, Act 1 of the Special Session of 2006, all school districts of the first class A, second class, third class and fourth class must adopt a preliminary budget proposal. The proposal must include estimated revenues and expenditures and the proposed tax rates. This proposed budget must be considered by the Board no later than 90 days prior to the date of the election immediately preceding the fiscal year. The preliminary budget proposal must also be printed and made available for public inspection at least 20 days prior to its adoption. The board of school directors may hold a public hearing on the budget, but are not required to do so. The board must give at least 10 days’ public notice of its intent to adopt the final budget according to Act 1 of 2006.[190]

In 2013, the average teacher salary in Central York School District was $65,437 a year, while the cost of the benefits teachers received was $24,976 per employee, for a total annual average teacher compensation of $90,414.[191]

Central York School District teacher and administrator retirement benefits are equal to at least 2.00% x Final Average Salary x Total Credited Service. (Some teachers benefits utilize a 2.50% benefit factor.)[192] After 40 years of service, a teacher can retire with 100% of the average salary of their final 3 years of employment. According to a study conducted at the American Enterprise Institute, in 2011, public school teachers’ total compensation is roughly 50 percent higher than they would likely receive in the private sector. The study found that the most generous benefits that teachers receive are not accounted for in many studies of compensation including: pension, retiree health benefits and job security.[193]

In 2011, the average teacher salary in Central York School District was $67,603 a year, while the cost of the benefits teachers receive was $15,933 per employee, for a total annual average teacher compensation of $83,537.[194] Twenty of the District's classroom teachers were paid over $97,000 a year, while 2 guidance counselors were paid $104,000.[195]

In 2010, Central York School District reported employing over 451 teachers and administrators with a starting salary of $41,000 to $85,000 for a 194-day work year.[196] Additionally, the teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance, vision insurance, dental insurance, an Employee Assistance Program, professional development reimbursement, personal days – 3, 1 paid Emergency leave day, 10 paid sick days (which accumulate), 3 paid bereavement days, and other benefits. An employee who retires after thirty or more years of service is entitled to health benefits paid by the district. Teachers are paid for extra instructional services at an hourly rate. The district also provides the union with 15 paid leave days to conduct union business.[197][198]

In 2007, Central York School District employed 320 teachers. The average teacher salary in the district was $48,609 for 180 days worked.[199] In 2007, the district's starting salary was $39,137 and the top teacher salary was $76,924 both salaries were the fourth highest in York County.[200] Additionally, the teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance, life insurance, professional development reimbursement, paid personal days, paid sick days, a retirement severance, and other benefits.[201]

Administration costs Central York School District administrative costs was $750.36 per pupil in 2008. The lowest administrative cost per pupil among Pennsylvania public school districts was $398 in 2008.[202] In 2007, the Central York School Board awarded a five-year contract (January 1, 2009 through June 30, 2013) to Dr. Michael S. Snell. as Superintendent, with an initial salary of $138,000. He was also awarded an extensive benefits package which includes: health insurance, life insurance, annual dues, paid travel, 20 days paid vacation, defined benefit pension and more.[203] The Pennsylvania School Board Association tracks salaries for Pennsylvania public school employees. It reports that in 2008 the average superintendent salary in Pennsylvania was $122,165.[204] In 2007, the Average District Administrator salary in Central York School District was $104,322 which ranked third in York County. The Average School Administrator salary in Central York School District was $80,507 which ranked sixth in York County.[205]

Reserves In 2008, Central York School District reported a $13,315,942.00 in an unreserved-undesignated fund balance. The designated fund balance was reported as zero.[206][207] In 2010, Central York administration reported $8,142,920 in the unreserved-undesignated fund balance. In 2013, Central York School District held $13,470,243 in reserves.[163] Pennsylvania school district reserve funds are divided into two categories – designated and undesignated. The undesignated funds are not committed to any planned project. Designated funds and any other funds, such as capital reserves, are allocated to specific projects. School districts are required by state law to keep 5 percent of their annual spending in the undesignated reserve funds to preserve bond ratings. By law the state limits the total unreserved-undesignated fund balance at 8% of the annual budget for school districts that have budgets over $19 million a year. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, from 2003 to 2010, as a whole, Pennsylvania school districts amassed nearly $3 billion in reserved funds.[208] In 2005, the total reserve funds held by Pennsylvania public school districts was $1.9 billion.[209] By 2013, reserves held by Pennsylvania public school districts, as a whole, had increased to over $3.8 billion.[210][211][212]

Fund balance (designated and undesignated)

  • 2008–09 – $11.8 million [213] (Was 17% of district's expense spending)
  • 2007–08 – $13.3 million
  • 2007–06 – $10.1 million
  • 2005–06 – $9.2 million

Audit In April 2009, the Pennsylvania Auditor General conducted a performance audit of the district. The significant findings were reported to the administration and the school board. The school district forfeited $13,190 due to employing an uncertified individual for several years. The certification delinquency had been reported in a previous audit.[214]

Per pupil spending In 2008, Central York School District administration reported spending $11,520 per pupil which ranked 339th among Pennsylvania's 501 school districts.[215] In 2010, the per pupil spending had increased to $12,347.16 [216] Among the states, Pennsylvania's total per pupil revenue (including all sources) ranked 11th at $15,023 per student, in 2008–09.[217] In 2007, the Pennsylvania per pupil total expenditures was $12,759.[218]

Tuition Students who live in the Central York School District's attendance area may choose to attend one of Pennsylvania's 157 public charter schools. A student living in a neighboring public school district or a foreign exchange student may seek admission to Area School District. For these cases, the Pennsylvania Department of Education sets an annual tuition rate for each school district. It is the amount the public school district pays to a charter school for each resident student that attends the charter and it is the amount a nonresident student's parents must pay to attend the Central York School District's schools. The 2012 tuition rates are Elementary School – $8,472.67, High School – $9,657.40.[219]

On May 21, 2010, the Central York School Board approved a $72.6 million preliminary budget.[220] The board transferred $2.6 million to a designated fund for anticipated increases in the district's required pension contributions

APA Study According to an extensive study of York County school districts conducted by APA Associates in 2008, Central York School District achieved a +10 rating based on Performance and Relative Efficiency. Northeastern York School District also achieved a ranking of +10. Eleven out of 16 York County district achieved a positive rating.[205]

Central York School District is funded by a combination of: a local earned income tax – 1% revenues shared with some local municipalities,[221] a property tax, a real estate transfer tax, coupled with substantial funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the federal government. Grants can provide an opportunity to supplement school funding without raising local taxes. In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, pension income and Social Security income are exempted from state personal income tax and local earned income tax, regardless of the individual's wealth.[222]

State basic education funding[edit]

According to a report from Representative Todd Stephens office, Central York School District receives 19.8% of its annual revenue from the state.[223]

For the 2014–15 school year, Central York School District will receive $6,801,065 in State Basic Education funding. The District will also receive $425,088 in new Ready To Learn Block grant. The State’s enacted Education Budget includes $5,526,129,000 for the 2014–2015 Basic Education Funding.[224] The Education budget also includes Accountability Block Grant funding at $100 million and $241 million in new Ready to Learn funding for public schools that focus on student achievement and academic success. The State is paying $500.8 million to Social Security on the school employees behalf and another $1.16 billion to the state teachers pension system (PSERS). In total, Pennsylvania's Education budget for K–12 public schools is $10 billion. This was a $305 million increase over 2013–2014 state spending and the greatest amount ever allotted by the Commonwealth for its public schools.[225]

In the 2013–2014 school year, the Central York School District received a 4.7% increase or $6,801,065 in Pennsylvania Basic Education Funding. This is $304,294 more than its 2012–13 state BEF to the District. Additionally, Central York School District received $137,368 in Accountability Block Grant funding to focus on academic achievement and level funding for special education services. Among the public school districts in York County, York City School District received the highest percentage increase in BEF at 12.3%. The District has the option of applying for several other state and federal grants to increase revenues. The Commonwealth’s budget increased Basic Education Funding statewide by $123 million to over $5.5 billion. Most of Pennsylvania’s 500 public school districts received an increase of Basic Education Funding in a range of 0.9% to 4%. Eight public school districts received exceptionally high funding increases of 10% to 16%. The highest increase in state funding was awarded to Austin Area School District which received a 22.5% increase in Basic Education Funding.[226] The highest percent of state spending per student is in the Chester-Upland district, where roughly 78 percent comes from state coffers. In Philadelphia, it is nearly 49 percent.[227] As a part of the education budget, the state provided the PSERS (Pennsylvania school employee pension fund) with $1,017,000,000 and Social Security payments for school employees of $495 million.[228]

For the 2012–13 school year, Central York School District received $6,494,056.[229] The Governor's Executive Budget for 2012–2013 included $9.34 billion for kindergarten through 12th grade public education, including $5.4 billion in basic education funding, which was an increase of $49 million over the 2011–12 budget. In addition, the Commonwealth provided $100 million for the Accountability Block Grant program (ABG). Central York School District also received $137,368 in additional ABG funding.

In the 2011–12 school year, Central York School District received $6,491,697 in state Basic Education Funding.[230][231] Additionally, the Central York School District received $137,368 in Accountability Block Grant funding. The enacted Pennsylvania state Education budget includes $5,354,629,000 for the 2011–2012 Basic Education Funding appropriation. This amount is a $233,290,000 increase (4.6%) over the enacted State appropriation for 2010–2011. The highest increase in state basic education funding was awarded to Duquesne City School District, which got a 49% increase in state funding for 2011–12.[232] Some Pennsylvania public school districts experienced a reduction in funding due to the loss of federal stimulus funding which ended in 2011.

For the 2010–11 budget year, Central York School District was allotted a 7.34% increase in Basic Education Funding for a total of $7,041,642.[233] The highest increase, in York County, went to Hanover Public School District which received an 8.39% increase in state basic education funding. The highest increase in 2010–11 went to Kennett Consolidated School District in Chester County which received a 23.65% increase in state funding.[234] The state's hold harmless policy regarding state basic education funding continued where each district received at least the same amount as it received the prior school year, even when enrollment had significantly declined. The amount of increase each school district received was set by then Governor Edward Rendell and the Secretary of Education, Gerald Zahorchak, as a part of the state budget proposal given each February. This was the second year of Governor Rendell’s policy to fund some public school districts at a far greater rate than others.[235] In 2010, Central York School District reported that 1,521 pupils received a free or reduced-price lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level.

In the 2009–2010 budget year, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 12.54% increase in Basic Education Funding for a total of $6,560,099 to Central York School District.[236] The district also received supplemental funding for English language learners, Title 1 federal funding for low-income students, for district size, a poverty supplement from the commonwealth and more.[237] Central York School District was allotted the highest Basic Education Funding increase in York County for the 2009–10 school year. In York County, 12 school districts received less than 6% increase in state basic education funding in 2010 and three districts received the base 2% increase. Among the 500 school districts in Pennsylvania, Muhlenberg School District in Berks County received the highest with a 22.31% increase in funding.[238]

The state Basic Education funding to the district in 2008–09 was $5,829,106.13. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 1,234 students received free or reduced-price lunches due to low family income in the 2007–2008 school year.[239] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Pennsylvania spent $7,824 Per Pupil in the year 2000. This amount increased up to $12,085 by the year 2008.[240][241]

All Pennsylvania school districts also receive additional funding from the state through several other funding allocations, including Reimbursement of Charter School Expenditures; Special Education Funding; Secondary Career & Technical Education Subsidy; PA Accountability Grants; and low achieving schools were eligible for Educational Assistance Program Funding and School Improvement Grants. Plus all Pennsylvania school districts receive federal dollars for various programs including: Special Education funding and Title I funding for children from low income families. In 2010, Pennsylvania spent over $24 billion for public education – local, state and federal dollars combined.[242]

Accountability Block Grants[edit]

Beginning in 2004–2005, the state launched the Accountability Block Grant school funding. This program has provided $1.5 billion to Pennsylvania’s school districts. The Accountability Block Grant program requires that its taxpayer dollars are focused on specific interventions that are most likely to increase student academic achievement. These interventions include: teacher training, all-day kindergarten, lower class size K–3rd grade, literacy and math coaching programs that provide teachers with individualized job-embedded professional development to improve their instruction, before or after school tutoring assistance to struggling students, For 2010–11, the district applied for and received $372,851 in addition to all other state and federal funding. The Central York School District uses the funding to provide teacher training to improve instruction and pay teachers to develop new courses and align the curriculum to the Pennsylvania Academic Standards.[243][244]

Ready to Learn grant[edit]

Beginning in the 2014–2015 budget, the State funded a new Ready to Learn Grant for public schools. A total of $100 million is allocated through a formula to districts based on the number of students, level of poverty of community as calculated by its market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) and the number of English language learners. Ready to Learn Block Grant funds may be used by the Districts for: school safety; Ready by 3 early childhood intervention programs; individualized learning programs; and science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) programs.[245]

Central York School District will receive $425,088 in Ready to Learn Grant dollars in addition to State Basic Education funding, Special Education funding, Accountability Block Grant funding, PreK Counts funding, reimbursement for Social Security payments for employees and other state grants which the district must apply to receive.

Classrooms for the Future Grants[edit]

In 2007, Central York High School, applied for and received a grant from the PA Department of Education for over $243,740 to purchase equipment to help reform the high school's core subjects instruction and to prepare students for future employment by using cutting-edge equipment and software. This was the school's third year to participate. During the 2006–2007 school year, four math and four English classrooms. The district used the funds to purchase laptops for students, laptops for teachers, laptop carts and other digital equipment.[246] Since 2006, Pennsylvania's Classrooms for the Future program has distributed more than $150 million for laptops, interactive boards and other high-tech tools in 543 high schools. In 2009 the state funding program was terminated due to a deep state budget shortfall.[247]

Other grants[edit]

The District did not participate in many state education grants, including: Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection's Environmental Education grants;[248][249] PA Science Its Elementary grants (discontinued effective with 2009–10 budget by Governor Rendell);[250] Education Assistance Grants; 2013 Safe Schools and Resource Officer grants; 2012 Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy grant;[251] 2012 and 2013 Pennsylvania Hybrid Learning Grants;[252] Project 720 High School Reform grants (discontinued effective with 2011–12 budget); nor the federal 21st Century Learning grants.

Federal Stimulus grant[edit]

Central York School District received an extra $1,819,410 in ARRA – Federal Stimulus money to be used in specific programs like special education and meeting the academic needs of low-income students.[253] The funding was limited to the 2009–10 and 2010–2011 school years.[254] Due to the temporary nature of the funding, schools were repeatedly advised to use the funds for one-time expenditures like acquiring equipment, making repairs to buildings, training teachers to provide more effective instruction or purchasing books and software.

Race to the Top grant[edit]

Central York School District officials applied for the Race to the Top federal grant which would have brought the district up to one million additional federal dollars to be used solely for improving student academic achievement.[255] Participation required the administration, the school board and the local teachers' union to sign an agreement to prioritize improving student academic success. In Pennsylvania, 120 public school districts and 56 charter schools agreed to participate. Central York was one of six York County school districts that applied to participate. Pennsylvania was not approved for the grant. The failure of districts to agree to participate was cited as one reason that Pennsylvania was not approved.[256][257][258]

Common Cents state initiative[edit]

The Central York School Board chose to not participate in the Pennsylvania Department of Education Common Cents program. The program called for the state to audit the district, at no cost to local taxpayers, to identify ways the district could save tax dollars.[259] After the review of the information, the district was not required to implement the recommended cost savings changes

Real estate taxes[edit]

Property tax rates in 2014–2015 were set by the school board at 18.2200 mills.[260] A mill is $1 of tax for every $1,000 of a property's assessed value. Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region.[261] Property taxes, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, apply only to real estate – land and buildings. The property tax is not levied on cars, business inventory, or other personal property. Certain types of property are exempt from property taxes, including: places of worship, places of burial, private social clubs, charitable and educational institutions and government property. Additionally, service related, disabled US military veterans may seek an exemption from paying property taxes. Pennsylvania school district revenues are dominated by two main sources: 1) Property tax collections, which account for the vast majority (between 75–85%) of local revenues; and 2) Act 511 tax collections, which are around 15% of revenues for school districts.[262]

The average yearly property tax paid by York County residents amounts to about 4.01% of their yearly income. York County ranked 232nd of the 3143 United States counties for property taxes as a percentage of median income.[270] According to a report prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, the total real estate taxes collected by all school districts in Pennsylvania rose from $6,474,133,936 in 1999–00 to $10,438,463,356 in 2008–09 and to $11,153,412,490 in 2011.[271] Property taxes in Pennsylvania are relatively high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value (1.34%) and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income (3.55%).[272]

Act 1 Adjusted index[edit]

The Act 1 of 2006 Index regulates the rates at which each school district can raise property taxes in Pennsylvania. Districts are not allowed to raise taxes above that index unless they allow voters to vote by referendum, or they seek an exception from the state Department of Education. The base index for the 2011–2012 school year is 1.4 percent, but the Act 1 Index can be adjusted higher, depending on a number of factors, such as property values and the personal income of district residents. Act 1 included 10 exceptions, including: increasing pension costs, increases in special education costs, a catastrophe like a fire or flood, increase in health insurance costs for contracts in effect in 2006 or dwindling tax bases. The base index is the average of the percentage increase in the statewide average weekly wage, as determined by the PA Department of Labor and Industry, for the preceding calendar year and the percentage increase in the Employment Cost Index for Elementary and Secondary Schools, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor, for the previous 12-month period ending June 30. For a school district with a market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) greater than 0.4000, its index equals the base index multiplied by the sum of .75 and its MV/PI AR for the current year.[273] In June 2011, the Pennsylvania General Assembly eliminated six of the ten exceptions to the Act 1 Index.[274] The following exceptions were maintained: 1) costs to pay interest and principal on indebtedness incurred prior to September 4, 2004 for Act 72 schools and prior to June 27, 2006 for non-Act 72 schools; 2) costs to pay interest and principal on electoral debt; 3) costs incurred in providing special education programs and services (beyond what is already paid by the State); and 4) costs due to increases of more than the Index in the school’s share of payments to PSERS (PA school employees pension fund) taking into account the state mandated PSERS contribution rate.[275][276]

The School District Adjusted Index for the Central York School District 2006–2007 through 2010–2011.[277]

For the 2014–15 budget year, Central York School Board applied for one exception to exceed their Act 1 Index limit due to the high costs of teachers' pension payments. In 2014–15, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 21.4% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS).[283] For the school budget 2014–15, 316 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above its Act 1 Index limit. Another 181 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeding the Index limit. Districts may apply for multiple exceptions each year. For the pension costs exception, 163 school districts received approval to exceed the Index in full, while others received a partial approval of their request. For special education costs, 104 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Seven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for the grandfathered construction debts exception.[284]

For the 2013–14 budget year, Central York School Board applied for two exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit: rising special education costs and escalating teacher pension costs. In 2013–14, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 16.93% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS). For the school budget year 2013–14, 311 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index. Another 171 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the pension costs exception, 169 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 75 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Eleven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for grandfathered construction debts.[285]

For the 2012–13 budget year, Central York School Board applied for two exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index: pension costs and special education costs. For 2012–2013, 274 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 223 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the exception for pension costs, 194 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 129 districts received approval to exceed the tax limit. For the exception for pension costs, 194 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 129 districts received approval to exceed the tax limit.[286]

For the 2011–12 school year, Central York School Board applied for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index. These were special education costs and teacher pension costs. Each year the Central York School Board has the option of adopting either 1) a resolution in January certifying they will not increase taxes above their index or 2) a preliminary budget in February. A school district adopting the resolution may not apply for referendum exceptions or ask voters for a tax increase above the inflation index. A specific timeline for these decisions is publisher each year by the Pennsylvania Department of Education.[287]

According to a state report, for the 2011–12 school year budgets, 247 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 250 school districts adopted a preliminary budget. Of the 250 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget, 231 adopted real estate tax rates that exceeded their index. Tax rate increases in the other 19 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget did not exceed the school district’s index. Of the districts who sought exceptions 221 used the pension costs exemption and 171 sought a Special Education costs exemption. Only 1 school district sought an exemption for Nonacademic School Construction Project, while 1 sought an exception for Electoral debt for school construction.[288] With the 2011 state education budget, the General Assembly repealed most of the Act 1 tax increase exceptions leaving only special education costs, pension costs and prior voter approved (ballot referendum) debt for construction. The cost of construction projects in the future will go to the voters for approval via ballot referendum. Districts can no longer raise property taxes to cover increasing health insurance costs for employees.[289]

The Central York School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index for the budget year 2010–2011.[290] In the Spring of 2010, 135 Pennsylvania school boards asked to exceed their adjusted index. Approval was granted to 133 of them and 128 sought an exception for pension costs increases.[291]

Property tax relief[edit]

In 2012, the Property tax relief was just $108. In 2010, the Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief from gambling for the Central York School District was $109 per approved permanent primary residence. In the district, 9,769 property owners applied for the tax relief.[292] In 2009, the district's property tax relief amount was set at $110 to 9,655 approved homestead owners. In 2010 within York County, the highest amount went to York City School District set at $495 per approved homestead. The property tax relief was subtracted from the total annual school property tax bill. Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres (40,000 m2) and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. Pennsylvania awarded the highest property tax relief to residents of the Chester-Upland School District in Delaware County at $632 per homestead and farmstead in 2010. This was the third year they were the top recipient.

Additionally, the Pennsylvania Property Tax/Rent Rebate program is provided for low income Pennsylvanians aged 65 and older; widows and widowers aged 50 and older; and people with disabilities age 18 and older. The income limit is $35,000 for homeowners. The maximum rebate for both homeowners and renters is $650. Applicants can exclude one-half (1/2) of their Social Security income, consequently individuals who have income substantially greater than $35,000, may still qualify for a rebate. Individuals must apply annually for the rebate. This can be taken in addition to Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief.[293]

Extracurriculars[edit]

Central York School District offers a wide variety of clubs, activities and an extensive, costly sports program.[294] Eligibility for participation is determined by the school board.[295] The district is part of the York-Adams League for sports. In 2007–08 the district spent $830,456 on athletics. In 2009–10 it spent $964,809 on extracurricular athletics and in 2011–12 it budgeted $944,395 for athletics.[296] The District did not charge an extracurricular activity in 2011–12. In 2012–13 the school instituted a $10 activity for sports. Collectively, York County public schools spent over 9 million dollars on sports budgets (does not include facility costs) in 2011–12.[297]

By Pennsylvania law, all K–12 students in the district, including those who attend a private nonpublic school, cyber charter school, charter school and those homeschooled, are eligible to participate in the extracurricular programs, including all athletics. They must meet the same eligibility rules as the students enrolled in the district's schools.[298]

According to PA Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting Act 126 of 2014, all volunteer coaches and all those who assist in student activities, must have criminal background checks. Like all school district employees, they must also attend an anti child abuse training once every three years.[299][300]

Sports[edit]

Coaches receive compensation as outlined in the teachers' union contract. When athletic competition exceeds the regular season, additional compensation is paid.[301] Central York School District does not provide its athletics disclosure form on its web site.[302] Article XVI-C of the Public School Code requires the disclosure of interscholastic athletic opportunities for all public secondary school entities in Pennsylvania. All school entities with grades 7–12 are required to annually collect data concerning team and financial information for all male and female athletes beginning with the 2012–13 school year and submit the information to the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Beginning with the 2013–14 school year, all non-school (booster club and alumni) contributions and purchases must also be reported to PDE.[303]

According to Pennsylvania’s Safety in Youth Sports Act, all sports coaches, paid and volunteer, are required to annually complete the Concussion Management Certification Training and present the certification before coaching.[304][305]

A joint Pennsylvania School Board Association and Pennsylvania State Athletic Directors Association survey, conducted in 2012, found nearly one third (30%) of public school respondents indicated charging individual students $10 to $250, with a statewide average of $65 per-sport.[306][307]

The District funds:

Varsity

Middle School Sports:

According to PIAA directory July 2014[308]

Central York School District operates a Community Aquatics Program that includes: a swim instruction program during non school hours, as well as, permitting community members to use the indoor pool at specific times.[309]

Intermediate Unit[edit]

Lincoln Intermediate Unit (IU#12) region includes: Adams County, Franklin County and York County. The agency provides Central York Schools, district home schooled students and area private schools many services, including: Special education services, combined purchasing, and instructional technology services. It runs Summer Academy which offers both art and academic strands designed to meet the individual needs of gifted, talented and high achieving students. Additional services include: Curriculum Mapping, Professional Development for school employees, Adult Education, Nonpublic School Services, Business Services, Migrant & ESL (English as a Second Language), Instructional Services, Special Education, Management Services, and Technology Services. It also provides a GED program to adults who want to earn a high school diploma and literacy programs. The Lincoln Intermediate Unit is governed by a 13-member Board of Directors, each a member of a local school board from the 25 school districts. Board members are elected by school directors of all 25 school districts for three-year terms that begin July 1.[310] There are 29 intermediate units in Pennsylvania. They are funded by school districts, state and federal program specific funding and grants. IUs do not have the power to tax.

History[edit]

The Central York School District traces its beginning to 1952, when representatives of North York Borough, Manchester Township and a portion of Springettsbury Township joined to form the Central Joint School System of York County.

1950–1959[edit]

1952: Articles of Agreement are signed, forming a district of about 29 square miles (75 km2). The district includes the existing North York High School. The Central Joint Municipal School Authority of York County is created. Plans to add onto the high school are under way. The Springettsbury School is opened.
1954: The Central Joint School System is reorganized to the Union School District, and three individual Boards of Directors are merged into one. The Central High School opens. The first graduating class contains 86 students.
1955: Pleasureville Elementary School is completed.
1957: North Hills Elementary School is completed.
1959: The district completes an addition to Wilson Elementary School Building.

1960–1969[edit]

1960: North Hills Junior High School is completed, providing a second school for district students in grades 7–9.
1961: The student body held a sit-down strike in the cafeteria to protest the current skirt length requirements.
1962: A structure containing restrooms and concessions stands is completed at the Central High Athletic Complex.
1966: The Central York Union School District becomes the Central York School District, as part of a statewide reorganization of school districts. C. Clinton Ruby, former supervising principal, is appointed as Superintendent. Stony Brook Elementary School opens, and the district operates its first kindergarten.
1967: Central York School District joins with other districts to form the York County Area Vocational Technical School.

1970–1979[edit]

1970: An addition to the Hayshire Elementary School is completed.
1973: Construction begins on an addition to Central High School.
1975: The addition to Central High School is completed, and the ninth grade is moved to the Senior High School.
1976: The graduating class of Central High School is its largest in history, with 302 members.
1977: The district experiences a reduction in growth that leads to the closing of school buildings. The Springettsbury School building is closed to pupil enrollment.

1980–1989[edit]

1980: The Lightner Elementary School building is closed and is leased to the LIU to house special programs.
1981: The Wilson Elementary School, built in 1911, is closed. The building is sold to the Yorktowne Business
1982: The Pleasureville Elementary School is closed. The North Hills Junior High School becomes the Central York Middle School. The sixth grades are moved to that building.
1986: Enrollment begins to grow again
1988: A committee composed of Board members, administrators, staff and community members recommends restructuring the elementary grades to provide for a district-wide school serving grades 4–5 and three schools serving grades K–3.

1990–1999[edit]

1990: The former Pleasureville School Building is converted to the current Educational Service Center. The ESC houses district administrators and support staff.
1991: North Hills Elementary School renovations are completed, and a new Roundtown Elementary School is completed and opened to students.
1994: A Distance Learning Laboratory is established on the Central York High School campus.
1996: The addition and renovation project at Central York Middle School is completed for the opening of school.
1997: The district approved the concept of a Career Academy program at Central York High School. The program would focus students in a career academy that would relate to a broad cluster of professional and technical occupations.

2000–Present[edit]


2001: The district purchases a 137-acre (0.55 km2) tract of land on Mundis Mill Road for the new high school.
2003: Construction of the new high school begins.
2004: The district begins renovations to its three K–3 elementary schools
2005: The new Central York High School opens. It has capacity for 1,650 students.
2005: Central York's Football team made it to the state playoff's, the first York-Adams team to ever make it to the Pennsylvania AAAA football playoffs after an undefeated season. Led by York-Adams player of the year, Eric Schwartz along with 18 all-county players and 7 all-state players.
2006: The district restructures the elementary grade levels, so that students are grouped in grades K–3 and 4–6. The middle school will house students in grades 7–8. Renovated Hayshire, Roundtown and Stony Brook Elementary Schools are opened for the start of the 2006–2007 school year.
2007: The high school undergoes more construction. New classrooms and a swimming pool are to be added to the school.
2008: Construction continues and is completed on an expansion at Central York High School. There are 22 new classroom spaces and an expanded cafeteria facility. Construction is completed on the Central York Community Natatorium, and a Grand Opening Celebration held in December 2008 honors the completion of this valuable community resource.
2009: The district experiences a transition in leadership when Dr. Linda Estep, Superintendent, retires January 1 after serving the district in various capacities for nearly 25 years. Dr. Michael S. Snell, who served as Assistant Superintendent since 2007, is named Superintendent of the Central York School District.
2010: Central York High School students Evan Fisher and Alejandro Aguilar win the National Championship for the JA Titan Challenge, placing first out of several thousand competitors in a technology business strategy competition.
2011: Central York High School Varsity Volleyball Team wins the Pennsylvania State Championship. Coach Brad Livingston's first in his career.
2014: Central York High School was the focus of national news when the school was visited by Nina Davuluri, Miss America 2014. Student Patrick Farves asked Davuluri to the prom during a Q&A session, leading school administrators to give him "a three-day in-school suspension, which require[d] him to sit in a classroom and work alone."[311][312] Davuluri responded on Facebook, asking that his suspension be revoked: "On Thursday, a student invited me to prom and gave me a flower while I was giving a presentation in York, Pennsylvania. I was flattered by the gesture although I am unfortunately unable to attend due to my travel schedule. I later learned of the disciplinary action taken and reached out to the school in hopes that they will reconsider their decision."[311] School administratrators justified the suspension by stating that it is not their "practice to discipline a student for asking someone – even Miss America – to a school dance ... however, it is our practice to set expectations for student behavior, to communicate those expectations and rules to students and families and to ensure those rules are followed within our schools."[312] Farves later regretted the joke, noting that his "mother is white and his father is black" and stating that his actions "overshadowed" Davuluri's platform: "she was trying to get across a very strong message – about how it's not about your beliefs or the color of your skin, but who you are."[312]

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