Chaitanya Mahaprabhu

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Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya-Mahabrabhu-at-Jagannath.jpg
Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Born Vishvambhar Misra (Nimai)
18 February 1486
Nabadwip Dham (present-day Nadia, West Bengal, India), known as Yogapith
Died 14 June[1] 1534 (aged 47–48)
Puri (present-day Odisha, India)
Titles/honours Expounded Gaudiya Vaishnavism; regarded full incarnation of Lord Krishna
Founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism
Achintya Bheda Abheda
Philosophy Bhakti yoga, Achintya Bheda Abheda Vedanta
Notable disciple(s) Rupa Goswami, Sanatana Goswami, Gopala Bhatta Goswami, Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami, Raghunatha dasa Goswami, Jiva Goswami and others

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Caitanya, IAST Caitanya Mahāprabhu; 18 February 1486 – 14 June 1534[1]) was a Hindu monk and social reformer from 16th century India. A native of Nabadwip in Bengal, he promoted the worship of God, in his tradition known by the name Krishna.[2] He is venerated by followers of Gaudiya Vaishnavism.[3]

Chaitanya was a notable proponent for the Vaishnava school of Bhakti yoga (meaning loving devotion to God), based on the philosophy of the Bhagavata Purana and Bhagavad Gita,[4] who founded the Achintya Bheda Abheda of Vedanta. Specifically, he worshipped the forms of Krishna, popularised the chanting of the Hare Krishna mantra[5] and composed the Siksastakam (eight devotional prayers) in Sanskrit. His followers, Gaudiya Vaishnavas, revere him as an avatar of Krishna in the mood of Radha, Krishna's eternal consort.

Chaitanya is also sometimes referred to by the names Gaura (Sanskrit for 'golden'), due to his fair complexion,[6] and Nimai due to his being born underneath a Neem tree.[7] There are numerous biographies available from the time giving details of Chaitanya's life, the most prominent ones being the Chaitanya Charitamrita of Krishnadasa Kaviraja, the earlier Chaitanya Bhagavata of Vrindavana Dasa[8] (both originally written in Bengali but now widely available in English and other languages), and the Chaitanya Mangala, written by "Lochana Dasa".[9] These works are in Bengali with some Sanskrit verses interspersed. In addition to these there are other Sanskrit biographies composed by his contemporaries. Chief among them are the works, Sri Chaitanya Charitamritam Mahakavyam by Kavi Karnapura and Sri Krishna Chaitanya Charitamritam by Murari Gupta.

Life[edit]

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is revered by his followers as the Supreme Being. He was born as the second son of Jagannath Misra and his wife Sachi Devi, who lived in the town of Dhaka Dakhhin, Srihatta, now Bangladesh. According to Chaitanya Charitamruta, Chaitanya was born on the full moon night of 18 February 1486, at the time of a lunar eclipse.[10] His parents named him 'Vishvambhar'. His family roots are originally from Dhaka Dakhhin, Sylhet[11][12] Shrihatta (now Sylhet, Bangladesh),

Yogapith, the birthplace of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Built in 1880s by Bhaktivinoda Thakur (1838-1914) in Mayapur (West Bengal, India).

Chaitanya's paternal grandmother saw a dream that Krishna is coming to her household and that for this to happen her daughter-in-law must go to Nabadwip. The daughter-in-law, Sachi Devi, and her husband took a river journey on Kushyira River from their home in Sylhet; what is now the Thakurbari in Misrapara of Dhakadaksin. Sachi Devi did not forget her mother-in-law's request to send the child to visit her. Chaitanya made this journey after he became a sanyasi. He reached his paternal grandparents' house in Dhakadaksin, Sylhet, on a Sunday in Bengali Falgun month or February/March in Gregorian calendar. His grandmother was getting blind by the time Chaitanya visited her but she regained her full sight once Chaitanya touched her face.[citation needed]

The grandmother narrated her dream that led to his parents move to Nabadwip. At one stage, the young Chaitanya stood up and went to the prayer room. As he was taking time to return, the family members went in search of him. To their surprise, Chaitanya was not to be seen in the prayer room but it was Krishna himself.[citation needed] Before leaving his ancestral home, he advised his grandmother to build prayer house on the south (daksin) and assured her that this would provide protection from the south. This is how the area came to be known, and is still called, Dhakadaksin or south covered. Chaitanaya also visited his maternal grandparents' home in Joypur village of Habiganj in greater Sylhet. Both ancestral homes have mandirs with guest quarters that are well maintained and upgraded by public and private funds, and have become popular with regional visitors.

Gaura Nitai shrine at ISKCON Temple Delhi.

In his youth, Chaitanya was primarily known as an erudite scholar, whose learning and skills in argumentation in his locality were second to none.[citation needed] Kashinath Mukhopadhyay was his private tutor during those days. A number of stories also exist telling of Chaitanya's apparent attraction to the chanting and singing of Krishna's names from a very young age,[13] but largely this was perceived as being secondary to his interest in acquiring knowledge and studying Sanskrit. When travelling to Gaya to perform the shraddha ceremony for his departed father, Chaitanya met his guru, the ascetic Ishvara Puri, from whom he received initiation with the Gopala Krishna mantra. This meeting was to mark a significant change in Chaitanya's outlook[14] and upon his return to Bengal the local Vaishnavas, headed by Advaita Acharya, were stunned at his external sudden 'change of heart' (from 'scholar' to 'devotee') and soon Chaitanya became the eminent leader of their Vaishnava group within Nadia.

After leaving Bengal and receiving entrance into the sannyasa order by Keshava Bharati,[15] Chaitanya journeyed throughout the length and breadth of India for several years, chanting the divine Names of Krishna constantly. He spent the last 24 years of his life in Puri, Odisha,[16] the great temple city of Jagannath. The Gajapati king, Prataparudra Dev, regarded Chaitanya as Krishna's avatar and was an enthusiastic patron and devotee of Chaitanya's sankeertan gatherings.[17] It was during these years that Chaitanya is believed by his followers to have sank deep into various Divine-Love (samādhi) and performed pastimes of divine ecstasy (bhakti).[18]

Identity[edit]

Chaitanya and Nityananda, is shown performing a 'kirtan' in the streets of Nabadwip, Bengal.

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu united in himself two aspects:[clarification needed] ecstatic devotee of Krishna and Krishna himself in inseparable union with Radha. According to the hagiographies of 16th-century authors, he exhibited his Universal Form identical to that of Krishna on a number of occasions, notably to Advaita Ācārya and Nityānanda Prabhu.[19][20][21] Caitanya Mahaprabhu is predicted in about 24 different scriptures, including one of the most revered purana called Srimad bhagavatam (bhagavata purana). In Srimad Bhagavatam 11.5.32 the following is stated:[22]

krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam

sangopangastra-parsadam
yajnaih sankirtana-prayair
yajanti hi su-medhasah

In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the name of Krsna. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Krsna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions.[23]

Gaudiya Vaishnavas considers Chaitanya Mahaprabhu to be Lord Krishna himself, but appearing in covered form (channa avatar). The Gaudiya Vaishnava acharya Bhaktivinoda Thakura have also found out the rare manuscript of Caitanya Upanishad of the atharvaveda section, which reveals the identity of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

Scriptural references about Chaitanya Mahaprabhu[edit]

In the Adi Purana and in the Narada Purana, the Supreme Person says:

aham eva dvija-srestho

nityam pracchanna-vigrahah bhagavad-bhakta-rupena lokam raksami sarvada

"I shall advent in the form of a Brahmana devotee and I shall hide my factual identity. I shall deliver all the worlds. Prediction of His advent as a sannyasi."

In the Upa-Puranas, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krishna speaks to Srila Vyasadeva:

aham eva kvacid brahman

sannyasa asramam asritah hari bhaktim grahayami kalau papa-hatan naran

"O Brahmana, I occasionally take the Sannyas Asram in an attempt to bring the fallen people of Kali Yuga to take up the path of Bhakti or devotional service to Lord Krishna."

In the Kurma Purana, it is stated:

kalina dahyamanam

uddhararaya tanu-bhrtam janma prathama sandhyayam bhavisyati dvijalaye

"The Supreme Person will appear in the first part of the age of Kali. He will appear in the home of a Brahmana, to save the embodied conditioned souls burning in the troubles of Kali-Yuga."

In the Garuda Purana, the Supreme Person says:

kalina dakyamananam

paritranaya tanu-bhrtam janma prathama sandhyayam karisyami dvijatisu

"In the first part of the age of Kali, I will come among the brahmanas to save the fallen souls, who are being burned by the troubles of the age of Kali."

In the Garuda Purana, the Supreme Lord says:

aham purno bhavisyami

yuga-sandhyau visesatah mayapure navadvipe bhavisyami sachi sutah

"I will take birth as the son of Sachi, in Navadvip-Mayapur. I will come in my complete spiritual form in the first part of Kali-Yuga."

In the same Garuda-Purana, it is Also stated:

kaleh prathama sandhyayam

lakshmi- kanto bhavisyati daru-brahma-samipa-sthah sannyasi gaura-vigrahah

"In the first part of Kali-Yuga, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will come in a gold-like form. First He will become the husband of Lakshmi [Srimati Lakshmi Devi, Lord Chaitanya's first wife]. Then He will become a sannyasi, near Lord Jagannatha who will appear in a divine wooden form."

In the Nrsimha Purana, it is said:

satye daitya-kuladhi-nasa-samaye

simhordhva-martyakrtis tretayam das-kandharam paribhavan rameti namakrtih gopalan paripalayan vraja-pure bharam haran dvapare gaurangah priya-kirtanah kali-yuge chaitanya-nama prabhuh

"The Supreme Personality of Godhead who in the Satya-Yuga appeared as a half- man, half-lion to cure a terrible disease that had ravaged the daityas, and who in the Treta-Yuga appeared as a person named Rama [Lord Ramachandra], the person who defeated the ten-headed Demon Ravana, and who in the Dvapara- Yuga removed the earth's burden, and protected the Gopa [cowherd men] people of Vraja-pura, will appear again in the Kali-Yuga. His form will be golden, He will delight in chanting the Lord's holy names, and His name will be Chaitanya."


In the Padma Purana, it is said:

yatrayogesvarah saksad

yogi-cintyo janardanah chaitanya vapur aste vai sandranandatmakah

"The Supreme Personality, Janardana, who is the object of the yogi's meditation who saves the devotees from various sufferings, and who is the master of all yogic practices, who is always full of divine transcendental ecstasy and bliss, will advent in His own divine form of Sri Chaitanya."

In the Padma-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself states:

kaleh prathama-sandhyayam

gaurangotham mahi-tale bhagirathi-tate ramye bhavisyami sachi-sutah

"I shall appear on this earth in the first part of Kali-Yuga in a beautiful place on the bank of the Bhagirathi I shall have a golden form, and I shall take birth as the son of Sachi"

In the Narada-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says:

aham eva kalau vipra

nityam prachanna-vigrahah bhavavad-bhakta-rupena lokan raksami sarvada

"O Vipra, in the age of Kali, I will come disguised as a devotee and I will save all the worlds."

The Supreme Personality of Godhead states in the Narada-Purana:

divija bhuvi jayadhvam

jayadhvam bhakta rupinah kalau sankirtana arambhe bhavisyami sachi-sutah

"O Divija (demigods), please come and advent as devotees on this earth in the age of Kali-Yuga. I will incarnate as the son of Sachi to inaugurate the congregational chanting of the name of Krishna."

In the Brahma Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says:

kaleh prathama sandhyayam

gaurangotham mahi-tale bhagirathi-tate bhumni bhavisyami sachi-sutah

"I will reveal my eternal golden form in the first part of Kali- Yuga. I will advent on the earth on the bank of the Bhagirathi as son of Mother Sachi."

In the Bhavisya Purana, the Supreme Lord says:

anandasru-kala-roma

harsa-purnam tapo-dhana sarve mama eva draksyanti kalau sannyasa-rupinam

"O austere sage, you should know that in the age of Kali, everyone will see my transcendental form as a sannyasi. I will be exhibiting symptoms of ecstasy like shedding tears of bliss and hairs standing in ecstasy."

In the Agni Purana, it is said:

prasantatma lamba-kanthas gaurangas

ca suravrtah

"The Supreme Personality of Godhead will come in a golden form, full of peace, and a beautiful long neck. He will be surrounded by many saintly devotees."

In the Matsya Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says:

mundo gaurah su-dirghangas

tri-srotas-tira-sambhavah dayaluh kirtana-grahi bhavisyami kalau-yuge

"In the age of Kali, I shall advent where the three rivers meet . I shall have a shaven head. I shall have a golden complexion. I will be very kind and always chant the holy name of Krishna."

In the Vayu Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead states:

suddho gaurah-su-dirghango

ganga-tira-samudbhavah dayaluh-kirtana-grahi bhavisyami kalau yuge

"In the age of Kali-Yuga, I shall come in a place on the bank of the Ganges. I will be very pure, have a golden complexion, and be very tall and chant the holy names of Krishna."

In the Markandeya Purana, the Supreme of Godhead declares:

Golokam ca parityajya

lokanam trana-karanat kalau gauranga-rupena lila-lavanya-vigrahah

"In the Kali-Yuga, I will leave Goloka and, to save the people of the world, I will become the handsome and playful Lord Gauranga."

In the Varaha Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares:

aham eva dvija-srestho

lila-pracurya-vigrahah bhagavad-bhakta-rupena lokan raksami sarvada

"I shall come as the best of the brahmanas. I will exhibit many pastimes in the form of a devotee. I shall deliver the people of the world."

In the Vamana Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares:

kali-ghora-tamas-channat

sarvan acara varjitan sachigarbhe ca sambhuya tarayisyami narada

"O Narada Muni, I will take birth in the womb of Sachi. I shall save the people, who will give up all proper good conduct, from the terrible darkness of the age of Kali-Yuga."

In the Atharva Veda; Purusa-Bodini- Upanisad, it is said:

saptame gaura-varna-visnor ity aena

sva-saktya caikyam etya pratar avatirya saha svaih sva-manum siksayati

"In the seventh manvantara, in the beginning of the Kali-Yuga, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will, accompanied by His own associates, descend in a golden form to the earth. He will teach the chanting of His own names."

In the Atharva Veda, the Supreme Person says:

itotham krta sannyaso'vatarisyami sa-guno nirvedo niskamo bhu-girvanas tira-atho' lakanandayah kalau catuh-sahasrabdhopari panca-

sahasrabhyantare gaura-varno dirghangah sarva-laksana-yukta isvara prarthito nija-rasasvado bhakta-rupo misrakhyo vidita-yogah syam

"I will descend on the earth after the passage of four thousand years in the Kali-Age, and before the passage of five thousand years. I will come on the earth on the bank of the Ganges. I will be a tall and saintly Brahmana devotee. I will have all the auspicious symptoms of an exalted person. I will exhibit renunciation. I will have all auspicious signs. I will be a devotee, practicing bhakti yoga . I will taste the rasa of My own devotional service."

In the Sama Veda, the Supreme Lord says:

tathaham krta sannyaso bhu-girvano

'vatarisye tire'lakanandayah punah punah isvara- prarthitah sa- parivaro niralambo nirdhuteh kali- kalmasa-kavalita- janavalambanaya

"I shall come to the earth, accompanied by My associates, in a place by the bank of the Ganges. I will advent to save the people who are afflicted and devoured by the sins of the age of Kali. I will manifest as an Avadhut Brahman Sannyasi."

Teachings[edit]

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has left one written record in Sanskrit called Siksastakam. Chaitanya's epistemological, theological and ontological teachings are summarised as ten roots or maxims (dasa mula).[24] The statements of amnaya (scripture) are the chief proof. By these statements the following ten topics are taught.

  1. Krishna is the Supreme Absolute Truth.
  2. Krishna is endowed with all energies.
  3. Krishna is the ocean of rasa (theology).
  4. The jivas (individual souls) are all separated parts of the Lord.
  5. In bound state the jivas are under the influence of matter, due to their tatastha nature.
  6. In the liberated state the jivas are free from the influence of matter, due to their tatastha nature.
  7. The jivas and the material world are both different from and identical to the Lord.
  8. Pure devotion is the practice of the jivas.
  9. Pure love of Krishna is the ultimate goal.
  10. Krishna is the only lovable blessing to be received.

Philosophy and Tradition[edit]

Despite having been initiated in the Madhvacharya tradition and taking sannyasa from Shankara's tradition, Chaitanya's philosophy is sometimes regarded as a tradition of his own within the Vaishnava framework – having some marked differences with the practices and the theology of other followers of Madhvacharya. He took Mantra Upadesa from Isvara Puri and Sanyasa Diksha from Keshava Bharati.

Pancha Tattva deities installed on a Vaishnava altar. From left to right: Advaita Acharya, Nityananda, Chaitanya, Gadadhara Pandita, Srivasa.

Chaitanya is not known to have written anything himself except for a series of verses known as the Siksastaka, or "eight verses of instruction",[25] which he had spoken, and were recorded by one of his close colleagues. The eight verses created by Chaitanya are considered to contain the complete philosophy of Gaudiya Vaishnavism in condensed form. Chaitanya requested a select few among his followers (who later came to be known as the Six Gosvamis of Vrindavan) to systematically present the theology of bhakti he had taught to them in their own writings.[26] The six saints and theologians were Rupa Goswami, Sanatana Goswami, Gopala Bhatta Goswami, Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami, Raghunatha dasa Goswami and Jiva Goswami, a nephew of brothers Rupa and Sanatana. These individuals were responsible for systematising Gaudiya Vaishnava theology.

Narottama Dasa, Srinivasa Acarya and Syamananda Pandit were among the stalwarts of the second generation of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. Having studied under Jiva Goswami, they were instrumental in propagating the teachings of the Goswamis throughout Bengal, Odisha and other regions of Eastern India. Many among their associates, such as Ramacandra Kaviraja and Ganga Narayan Chakravarti, were also eminent teachers in their own right.[27]

In the early 18th century Kalachand Vidyalankar, a disciple of Chaitanya, made his preachings popular in Bengal. He traveled throughout India popularizing the gospel of anti-untouchability, social justice and mass education. He probably initiated 'Pankti Bhojon' and Krishna sankirtan in eastern part of Bengal. Several schools (sampradaya) have been practicing it for hundreds of years. Geetashree Chabi Bandyopadhyay and Radharani Devi are among many who achieved fame by singing kirtan. The Dalits in Bengal at that time neglected and underprivileged cast readily accepted his libertarian outlook and embraced the doctrine of Mahaprabhu. His disciples were known as Kalachandi Sampraday who inspired the people to eradicate illiteracy and casteism. Many consider Kalachand as the Father of Rationalism in East Bengal (Purba Banga).

The festival of Kheturi, presided over by Jahnava Thakurani,[28] the wife of Nityananda, was the first time the leaders of the various branches of Chaitanya's followers assembled together. Through such festivals, members of the loosely organised tradition became acquainted with other branches along with their respective theological and practical nuances.[29] Around these times, the disciples and descendants of Nityananda and Advaita Acharya, headed by Virabhadra and Krishna Mishra respectively, started their family lineages (vamsa) to maintain the tradition. The vamsa descending from Nityananda through his son Virabhadra forms the most prominent branch of the modern Gaudiya tradition, though descendants of Advaita, along with the descendants of many other associates of Chaitanya, maintain their following especially in the rural areas of Bengal. Gopala Guru Goswami, a young associate of Chaitanya and a follower of Vakresvara Pandit, founded another branch based in Odisha. The writings of Gopala, along with those of his disciple Dhyanacandra Goswami, have had a substantial influence on the methods of internal worship in the tradition.

From the very beginning of Chaitanya's bhakti movement in Bengal, Haridasa Thakur and others Muslim or Hindu by birth were the participants. Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, the great sage of Dakshineswar, who lived in the 19th century, emphasized the bhakti marga of Chaitanya mahaprabhu, whom he referred to as "Gauranga." (The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna). This openness received a boost from Bhaktivinoda Thakura's broad-minded vision in the late 19th century and was institutionalised by Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati in his Gaudiya Matha in the 20th century.[30] In the 20th century the teachings of Chaitanya were brought to the West by Prabhupada, a representative of Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati branch of Chaitanya's tradition. Prabhupada founded his movement known as The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) to spread Chaitanya's teachings throughout the world.[31] Saraswata gurus and acharyas, members of the Goswami lineages and several other Hindu sects which revere Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, including devotees from the major Vaishnava holy places in Mathura District, West Bengal and Odisha, also established temples dedicated to Krishna and Chaitanya outside India in the closing decades of the 20th century. In the 21st century Vaishnava bhakti is now also being studied through the academic medium of Krishnology in a number of academic institutions.[32]

Discovery of Chaitanya's Birthplace Yogapith[edit]

In 1886 a leading Gaudiya Vaisnava reformer Bhaktivinoda Thakur attempted to retire from his government service and move to Vrindavan to pursue his devotional life there.[33] However, he saw a dream in which Caitanya ordered him to go to Nabadwip instead.[34] After some difficulty, in 1887 Bhaktivinoda was transferred to Krishnanagar, a district center twenty-five kilometers away from Nabadwip, famous as the birthplace of Caitanya Mahaprabhu.[35] Despite poor health, Bhaktivinoda finally managed to start regularly visiting Nabadwip to research places connected with Caitanya.[36] Soon he came to a conclusion that the site purported by the local brahmanas to be Caitanya's birthplace could not possibly be genuine.[37] Determined to find the actual place of Caitanya's pastimes but frustrated by the lack of reliable evidence and clues, one night he saw a mystical vision:[38]

Taking this as a clue, Bhaktivinoda conducted a thorough, painstaking investigation of the site, by consulting old geographical maps matched against scriptural and verbal accounts, and eventually came to a conclusion that the village of Ballaldighi was formerly known as Mayapur, confirmed in Bhakti-ratnakara as the actual birth site of Caitanya.[39] He soon acquired a property in Surabhi-kunj near Mayapur to oversee the temple construction at Yogapith, Caitanya's birthplace.[40] For this purpose he organized, via Sajjana-tosani and special festivals, as well as personal acqualitances, a massive and hugely successful fundraising effort among the people of Bengal and beyond.[41] Noted Bengali journalist Sisir Kumar Ghosh (1840-1911) commended Bhaktivinoda for the discovery and hailed him as "the seventh goswami" – a reference to the Six Goswamis, renowned medieval Gaudiya Vaisnava ascetics and close associates of Caitanya who had authored many of the school's Th texts and discovered places of Krishna's pastimes in Vrindavan.[42]

Cultural legacy[edit]

In addition to his deep influences on Hinduism, Chaitanya's cultural legacy in Bengal and Odisha remains deep, with many residents performing daily worship to him as an avatar of Krishna. Some attribute to him a Renaissance in Bengal,[43] different from the more well known 19th-century Bengal Renaissance. Salimullah Khan, a noted linguist, maintains, "Sixteenth century is the time of Chaitanya Dev, and it is the beginning of Modernism in Bengal. The concept of 'humanity' that came into fruition is contemporaneous with that of Europe".

Noted Bengali biographical film on him, Nilachaley Mahaprabhu (1957) was directed by Kartik Chattopadhyay.[44]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b [1]
  2. ^ Britannica: Caitanya Movement
  3. ^ Ravi Shankar discusses Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
  4. ^ Srimad Bhagavatam (Introduction) "Lord Caitanya not only preached the Srimad-Bhagavatam but propagated the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita as well in the most practical way."
  5. ^ Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu "He spread the Yuga-dharma, or the practice most recommended for the attainment of pure love for Sri Sri Radha-Krishna. That process is Harinam Sankirtan, or the congregational chanting of the Holy Names of the Lord: Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare"
  6. ^ In the Name of the Lord (Deccan Herald)[dead link] "He was also given the name of ‘Gaura’ because of his extremely fair complexion."
  7. ^ KCM Archive "They named Him Nimai, as he was born under a neem tree."
  8. ^ Gaudiya Literature
  9. ^ Biography of Sri Locana Dasa Thakura (salagram.net)
  10. ^ Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu: His Life and Precepts, by Bhaktivinoda Thakura "Caitanya Mahäprabhu appeared in Nabadwip in Bengal just after sunset on the evening of the 23rd Phälguna 1407 Shakabda, answering to 18 February 1486, of the Christian Era. The moon was eclipsed at the time of His 'birth'"
  11. ^ Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu: His Life and Precepts, by Bhaktivinoda Thakura
  12. ^ Nair, p. 87
  13. ^ CC Adi lila 14.22
  14. ^ CC Adi lila 17.9 "In Gayla, Sri Chaitanya Mähaprabhu was initiated by Isvara Puri, and immediately afterwards He exhibited signs of love of Godhead. He again displayed such symptoms after returning home."
  15. ^ Teachings of Lord Chaitanya "They were surprised to see Lord Chaitanya after He accepted his sannyasa order from Kesava Bharati"
  16. ^ History of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. The first 6 years, he traveled extensively from Rameshavara in South India to Vrindavan in North India, sharing the message of bhakti. He is also said to have achieved major intellectual successes in converting intellectual giants of his times such as Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya and Prakashananda Saraswati to his devotional understanding of Vedanta. "Chaitanya spent the remainder of His life, another 24 years, in Jagannäth Puri in the company of some of His intimate associates, such as Svarüpa Dämodara and Rämänanda Räya"
  17. ^ Gaudiya Vaishnavas "His magnetism attracted men of great learning such as Särvabhauma Bhattächärya, the greatest authority on logic, and Shree Advaita Ächärya, leader of the Vaishnavas in Bengal, and men of power and wealth like the King of Odisha, Pratapa Rudra and his minister, Rämänanda Räya..."
  18. ^ Srimad Bhagavatam, Introduction "At Puridhawm, when he [Chaitanya] entered the temple of Jagannätha, he became at once saturated with transcendental ecstasy"
  19. ^ CC Adi-lila 17.10
  20. ^ Chaitanya Bhagavata Ādi-khaṇḍa 1.122
  21. ^ Chaitanya Bhagavata, Madhya-khaṇḍa 24
  22. ^ SB 11.5.32
  23. ^ http://www.veda.harekrsna.cz/encyclopedia/caitanya.htm
  24. ^ Thakura, B. (1993). Jaiva dharma: The universal religion (K. Das, Trans.). Los Angeles, CA: Krishna Institute.
  25. ^ TLC: Lord Chaitanya's Mission "Although Lord Caitanya was widely renowned as a scholar in His youth, He left only eight verses, called Sikshashtaka"
  26. ^ History of Gaudiya Vaishnavism "He requested ... the Six Goswamis of Vrindavan, to systematically present ... the theology of bhakti he had taught"
  27. ^ Narottama Dasa Thakur: Biography
  28. ^ Festival of Kheturi[dead link]
  29. ^ Charismatic Renewal in Gaudiya Vaishnavism (pdf)
  30. ^ Sherbow, P.H. (2004). "AC Bhaktivedanta Swami's Preaching in the Context of Gaudiya Vaishnavism". The Hare Krishna Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant: 139. 
  31. ^ History of the Hare Krishna Movement
  32. ^ Krishnology (definition)
  33. ^ Dasa 1999, pp. 100-101.
  34. ^ Dasa 1999, p. 101.
  35. ^ Dasa 1999, pp. 102-103.
  36. ^ Dasa 1999, pp. 103-105.
  37. ^ a b Dasa 1999, p. 104.
  38. ^ Fuller 2005, p. 209.
  39. ^ Dasa 1999, p. 105.
  40. ^ Dasa 1999, p. 108.
  41. ^ Fuller 2005, pp. 243-250.
  42. ^ Dasa 1999, pp. 106-107.
  43. ^ Bengal Studies Conference "History says that the Bengali people experienced the renaissance: not only once but also twice in the course of history. Bengalis witnessed the first renaissance in the 16th century when Hossain Shah and Sri Chaitanya’s idealism influenced a sect of upper literal class of people"
  44. ^ Sur, Ansu; Goswami, Abhijit (1999). Bengali Film Directory. Nandan, West Bengal Film Centre. p. 96. 

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