|Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu|
Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
|Born||Vishvambhar Misra (Nimai)
18 February 1486
Nabadwip Dham (present-day Nadia, West Bengal, India), known as Yogapith
|Died||14 June 1534 (aged 47–48)
Puri (present-day Odisha, India)
|Titles/honours||Expounded Gaudiya Vaishnavism; regarded full incarnation of Lord Krishna|
|Founder of||Gaudiya Vaishnavism
Achintya Bheda Abheda
|Philosophy||Bhakti yoga, Achintya Bheda Abheda Vedanta|
|Notable disciple(s)||Rupa Goswami, Sanatana Goswami, Gopala Bhatta Goswami, Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami, Raghunatha dasa Goswami, Jiva Goswami and others|
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Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Caitanya, IAST Caitanya Mahāprabhu; 18 February 1486 – 14 June 1534) was a Hindu monk and social reformer from 16th century India. Born in a Bengali Brahmin family of Nabadwip in Bengal, he founded the Achintya Bheda Abheda sub-school of Vedanta philosophy, and promoted the community-style devotional worship of Krishna with kirtans (singing and rhythmic dancing). He is venerated by followers of Gaudiya Vaishnavism.
Chaitanya was a notable proponent for the Vaishnava school of Bhakti yoga (meaning loving devotion to God), based on Bhagavata Purana and Bhagavad Gita. Of various avatars of Vishnu, he revered Krishna, popularised the chanting of the Hare Krishna mantra and composed the Siksastakam (eight devotional prayers) in Sanskrit. His followers, Gaudiya Vaishnavas, revere him as a spiritual reformer, Hindu revivalist and an avatar of Krishna.
Chaitanya is sometimes referred to by the names Gaura due to his fair complexion, and Nimai due to his being born underneath a Neem tree. His teachings helped flourish Bhakti movement in east India, particularly Bengal and Odisha from 16th century onwards.
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is revered by his followers as the Supreme Being. He was born as the second son of Jagannath Misra and his wife Sachi Devi, who lived in the town of Dhaka Dakhhin, Srihatta, now Bangladesh. According to Chaitanya Charitamruta, Chaitanya was born on the full moon night of 18 February 1486, at the time of a lunar eclipse. His parents named him 'Vishvambhar'. His family roots are originally from Dhaka Dakhhin, Sylhet Shrihatta (now Sylhet, Bangladesh),
A number of stories also exist telling of Chaitanya's apparent attraction to the chanting and singing of Krishna's names from a very young age, but largely this was perceived as being secondary to his interest in acquiring knowledge and studying Sanskrit. When travelling to Gaya to perform the shraddha ceremony for his departed father, Chaitanya met his guru, the ascetic Ishvara Puri, from whom he received initiation with the Gopala Krishna mantra. This meeting was to mark a significant change in Chaitanya's outlook and upon his return to Bengal the local Vaishnavas, headed by Advaita Acharya, were stunned at his external sudden 'change of heart' (from 'scholar' to 'devotee') and soon Chaitanya became the eminent leader of their Vaishnava group within Nadia.
After leaving Bengal and receiving entrance into the sannyasa order by Keshava Bharati, Chaitanya journeyed throughout the length and breadth of India for several years, chanting the divine Names of Krishna constantly. He spent the last 24 years of his life in Puri, Odisha, the great temple city of Jagannath. The Gajapati king, Prataparudra Dev, regarded Chaitanya as Krishna's avatar and was an enthusiastic patron and devotee of Chaitanya's sankeertan gatherings. It was during these years that Chaitanya is believed by his followers to have sank deep into various Divine-Love (samādhi) and performed pastimes of divine ecstasy (bhakti).
There are numerous biographies available from the time giving details of Chaitanya's life, the most prominent ones being the Chaitanya Charitamrita of Krishnadasa Kaviraja, the earlier Chaitanya Bhagavata of Vrindavana Dasa (both originally written in Bengali but now widely available in English and other languages), and the Chaitanya Mangala, written by "Lochana Dasa". These works are in Bengali with some Sanskrit verses interspersed. In addition to these there are other Sanskrit biographies composed by his contemporaries. Chief among them are the works, Sri Chaitanya Charitamritam Mahakavyam by Kavi Karnapura and Sri Krishna Chaitanya Charitamritam by Murari Gupta.
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu united in himself two aspects:[clarification needed] ecstatic devotee of Krishna and Krishna himself in inseparable union with Radha. According to the hagiographies of 16th-century authors, he exhibited his Universal Form identical to that of Krishna on a number of occasions, notably to Advaita Ācārya and Nityānanda Prabhu.
Gaudiya Vaishnavas considers Chaitanya Mahaprabhu to be Lord Krishna himself, but appearing in covered form (channa avatar). The Gaudiya Vaishnava acharya Bhaktivinoda Thakura have also found out the rare manuscript of Caitanya Upanishad of the atharvaveda section, which reveals the identity of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has left one written record in Sanskrit called Siksastakam. Chaitanya's epistemological, theological and ontological teachings are summarised as ten roots or maxims (dasa mula). The statements of amnaya (scripture) are the chief proof. By these statements the following ten topics are taught.
- Krishna is the Supreme Absolute Truth.
- Krishna is endowed with all energies.
- Krishna is the ocean of rasa (theology).
- The jivas (individual souls) are all separated parts of the Lord.
- In bound state the jivas are under the influence of matter, due to their tatastha nature.
- In the liberated state the jivas are free from the influence of matter, due to their tatastha nature.
- The jivas and the material world are both different from and identical to the Lord.
- Pure devotion is the practice of the jivas.
- Pure love of Krishna is the ultimate goal.
- Krishna is the only lovable blessing to be received.
Philosophy and Tradition
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Despite having been initiated in the Madhvacharya tradition and taking sannyasa from Shankara's tradition, Chaitanya's philosophy is sometimes regarded as a tradition of his own within the Vaishnava framework – having some marked differences with the practices and the theology of other followers of Madhvacharya. He took Mantra Upadesa from Isvara Puri and Sanyasa Diksha from Keshava Bharati.
Chaitanya is not known to have written anything himself except for a series of verses known as the Siksastaka, or "eight verses of instruction", which he had spoken, and were recorded by one of his close colleagues. The eight verses created by Chaitanya are considered to contain the complete philosophy of Gaudiya Vaishnavism in condensed form. Chaitanya requested a select few among his followers (who later came to be known as the Six Gosvamis of Vrindavan) to systematically present the theology of bhakti he had taught to them in their own writings. The six saints and theologians were Rupa Goswami, Sanatana Goswami, Gopala Bhatta Goswami, Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami, Raghunatha dasa Goswami and Jiva Goswami, a nephew of brothers Rupa and Sanatana. These individuals were responsible for systematising Gaudiya Vaishnava theology.
Narottama Dasa, Srinivasa Acarya and Syamananda Pandit were among the stalwarts of the second generation of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. Having studied under Jiva Goswami, they were instrumental in propagating the teachings of the Goswamis throughout Bengal, Odisha and other regions of Eastern India. Many among their associates, such as Ramacandra Kaviraja and Ganga Narayan Chakravarti, were also eminent teachers in their own right.
In the early 18th century Kalachand Vidyalankar, a disciple of Chaitanya, made his preachings popular in Bengal. He traveled throughout India popularizing the gospel of anti-untouchability, social justice and mass education. He probably initiated 'Pankti Bhojon' and Krishna sankirtan in eastern part of Bengal. Several schools (sampradaya) have been practicing it for hundreds of years. Geetashree Chabi Bandyopadhyay and Radharani Devi are among many who achieved fame by singing kirtan. The Dalits in Bengal at that time neglected and underprivileged cast readily accepted his libertarian outlook and embraced the doctrine of Mahaprabhu. His disciples were known as Kalachandi Sampraday who inspired the people to eradicate illiteracy and casteism. Many consider Kalachand as the Father of Rationalism in East Bengal (Purba Banga).
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The festival of Kheturi, presided over by Jahnava Thakurani, the wife of Nityananda, was the first time the leaders of the various branches of Chaitanya's followers assembled together. Through such festivals, members of the loosely organised tradition became acquainted with other branches along with their respective theological and practical nuances. Around these times, the disciples and descendants of Nityananda and Advaita Acharya, headed by Virabhadra and Krishna Mishra respectively, started their family lineages (vamsa) to maintain the tradition. The vamsa descending from Nityananda through his son Virabhadra forms the most prominent branch of the modern Gaudiya tradition, though descendants of Advaita, along with the descendants of many other associates of Chaitanya, maintain their following especially in the rural areas of Bengal. Gopala Guru Goswami, a young associate of Chaitanya and a follower of Vakresvara Pandit, founded another branch based in Odisha. The writings of Gopala, along with those of his disciple Dhyanacandra Goswami, have had a substantial influence on the methods of internal worship in the tradition.
From the very beginning of Chaitanya's bhakti movement in Bengal, Haridasa Thakur and others Muslim or Hindu by birth were the participants. Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, the great sage of Dakshineswar, who lived in the 19th century, emphasized the bhakti marga of Chaitanya mahaprabhu, whom he referred to as "Gauranga." (The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna). This openness received a boost from Bhaktivinoda Thakura's broad-minded vision in the late 19th century and was institutionalised by Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati in his Gaudiya Matha in the 20th century. In the 20th century the teachings of Chaitanya were brought to the West by Prabhupada, a representative of Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati branch of Chaitanya's tradition. Prabhupada founded his movement known as The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) to spread Chaitanya's teachings throughout the world. Saraswata gurus and acharyas, members of the Goswami lineages and several other Hindu sects which revere Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, including devotees from the major Vaishnava holy places in Mathura District, West Bengal and Odisha, also established temples dedicated to Krishna and Chaitanya outside India in the closing decades of the 20th century. In the 21st century Vaishnava bhakti is now also being studied through the academic medium of Krishnology in a number of academic institutions.
Discovery of Chaitanya's Birthplace Yogapith
In 1886 a leading Gaudiya Vaisnava reformer Bhaktivinoda Thakur attempted to retire from his government service and move to Vrindavan to pursue his devotional life there. However, he saw a dream in which Caitanya ordered him to go to Nabadwip instead. After some difficulty, in 1887 Bhaktivinoda was transferred to Krishnanagar, a district center twenty-five kilometers away from Nabadwip, famous as the birthplace of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Despite poor health, Bhaktivinoda finally managed to start regularly visiting Nabadwip to research places connected with Caitanya. Soon he came to a conclusion that the site purported by the local brahmanas to be Caitanya's birthplace could not possibly be genuine. Determined to find the actual place of Caitanya's pastimes but frustrated by the lack of reliable evidence and clues, one night he saw a mystical vision:
|“||By 10 o'clock the night was very dark and cloudy. Across the Ganges in a northern direction I suddenly saw a large building flooded with golden light. I asked Kamala if he could see the building and he said that he could. But my friend Kerani Babu could see nothing. I was amazed. What could it be? In the morning I went back to the roof and looked carefully back across the Ganges. I saw that in the place where I had seen the building was a stand of palm trees. Inquiring about this area I was told that it was the remains of Lakshman Sen's fort at Ballaldighi.||”|
Taking this as a clue, Bhaktivinoda conducted a thorough, painstaking investigation of the site, by consulting old geographical maps matched against scriptural and verbal accounts, and eventually came to a conclusion that the village of Ballaldighi was formerly known as Mayapur, confirmed in Bhakti-ratnakara as the actual birth site of Caitanya. He soon acquired a property in Surabhi-kunj near Mayapur to oversee the temple construction at Yogapith, Caitanya's birthplace. For this purpose he organized, via Sajjana-tosani and special festivals, as well as personal acqualitances, a massive and hugely successful fundraising effort among the people of Bengal and beyond. Noted Bengali journalist Sisir Kumar Ghosh (1840-1911) commended Bhaktivinoda for the discovery and hailed him as "the seventh goswami" – a reference to the Six Goswamis, renowned medieval Gaudiya Vaisnava ascetics and close associates of Caitanya who had authored many of the school's Th texts and discovered places of Krishna's pastimes in Vrindavan.
Chaitanya's influence on the cultural legacy in Bengal and Odisha has been significant, with many residents performing daily worship to him as an avatar of Krishna. Some attribute to him a Renaissance in Bengal, different from the more well known 19th-century Bengal Renaissance. Salimullah Khan, a noted linguist, maintains, "Sixteenth century is the time of Chaitanya Dev, and it is the beginning of Modernism in Bengal. The concept of 'humanity' that came into fruition is contemporaneous with that of Europe".
- Ravi Gupta (2007), Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami's Catursutri Tika, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-40548-3, pages 47-52
- Britannica: Caitanya Movement
- Catherine Asher and Cynthia Talbot (2006), India Before Europe, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521809047, pages 110-112
- Ravi Shankar discusses Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
- Srimad Bhagavatam (Introduction) "Lord Caitanya not only preached the Srimad-Bhagavatam but propagated the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita as well in the most practical way."
- Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu "He spread the Yuga-dharma, or the practice most recommended for the attainment of pure love for Sri Sri Radha-Krishna. That process is Harinam Sankirtan, or the congregational chanting of the Holy Names of the Lord: Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare"
- Benjamin E. Zeller (2010), Prophets and Protons, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0814797211, pages 77-79
- In the Name of the Lord (Deccan Herald)[dead link] "He was also given the name of ‘Gaura’ because of his extremely fair complexion."
- KCM Archive "They named Him Nimai, as he was born under a neem tree."
- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu: His Life and Precepts, by Bhaktivinoda Thakura "Caitanya Mahäprabhu appeared in Nabadwip in Bengal just after sunset on the evening of the 23rd Phälguna 1407 Shakabda, answering to 18 February 1486, of the Christian Era. The moon was eclipsed at the time of His 'birth'"
- Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu: His Life and Precepts, by Bhaktivinoda Thakura
- Nair, p. 87
- CC Adi lila 14.22
- CC Adi lila 17.9 "In Gayla, Sri Chaitanya Mähaprabhu was initiated by Isvara Puri, and immediately afterwards He exhibited signs of love of Godhead. He again displayed such symptoms after returning home."
- Teachings of Lord Chaitanya "They were surprised to see Lord Chaitanya after He accepted his sannyasa order from Kesava Bharati"
- History of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. The first 6 years, he traveled extensively from Rameshavara in South India to Vrindavan in North India, sharing the message of bhakti. He is also said to have achieved major intellectual successes in converting intellectual giants of his times such as Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya and Prakashananda Saraswati to his devotional understanding of Vedanta. "Chaitanya spent the remainder of His life, another 24 years, in Jagannäth Puri in the company of some of His intimate associates, such as Svarüpa Dämodara and Rämänanda Räya"
- Gaudiya Vaishnavas "His magnetism attracted men of great learning such as Särvabhauma Bhattächärya, the greatest authority on logic, and Shree Advaita Ächärya, leader of the Vaishnavas in Bengal, and men of power and wealth like the King of Odisha, Pratapa Rudra and his minister, Rämänanda Räya..."
- Srimad Bhagavatam, Introduction "At Puridhawm, when he [Chaitanya] entered the temple of Jagannätha, he became at once saturated with transcendental ecstasy"
- Gaudiya Literature
- Biography of Sri Locana Dasa Thakura (salagram.net)
- CC Adi-lila 17.10
- Chaitanya Bhagavata Ādi-khaṇḍa 1.122
- Chaitanya Bhagavata, Madhya-khaṇḍa 24
- Thakura, B. (1993). Jaiva dharma: The universal religion (K. Das, Trans.). Los Angeles, CA: Krishna Institute.
- TLC: Lord Chaitanya's Mission "Although Lord Caitanya was widely renowned as a scholar in His youth, He left only eight verses, called Sikshashtaka"
- History of Gaudiya Vaishnavism "He requested ... the Six Goswamis of Vrindavan, to systematically present ... the theology of bhakti he had taught"
- Narottama Dasa Thakur: Biography
- Festival of Kheturi[dead link]
- Charismatic Renewal in Gaudiya Vaishnavism (pdf)
- Sherbow, P.H. (2004). "AC Bhaktivedanta Swami's Preaching in the Context of Gaudiya Vaishnavism". The Hare Krishna Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant: 139.
- History of the Hare Krishna Movement
- Krishnology (definition)
- Dasa 1999, pp. 100-101.
- Dasa 1999, p. 101.
- Dasa 1999, pp. 102-103.
- Dasa 1999, pp. 103-105.
- Dasa 1999, p. 104.
- Fuller 2005, p. 209.
- Dasa 1999, p. 105.
- Dasa 1999, p. 108.
- Fuller 2005, pp. 243-250.
- Dasa 1999, pp. 106-107.
- Bengal Studies Conference "History says that the Bengali people experienced the renaissance: not only once but also twice in the course of history. Bengalis witnessed the first renaissance in the 16th century when Hossain Shah and Sri Chaitanya’s idealism influenced a sect of upper literal class of people"
- Sur, Ansu; Goswami, Abhijit (1999). Bengali Film Directory. Nandan, West Bengal Film Centre. p. 96.
- Rosen, Steven (1988). Indiaʼs spiritual renaissance: the life and times of Lord Chaitanya. Folk Books. ISBN 0-9619763-0-6.
- Nair, K. K. (2007). Sages Through Ages – Volume II: India's Heritage. AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-4208-7802-6. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
- Sandipan Manna (2013). In Search of a Forgotten Mahatma: Kalachand Vidyalankar (I ed.). Kalyani Foundation. ISBN 978-81-927505-4-5.
- Dasa, Shukavak N. (1999), Hindu Encounter with Modernity: Kedarnath Datta Bhaktivinoda, Vaiṣṇava Theologian (revised, illustrated ed.), Los Angeles, CA: Sanskrit Religions Institute, ISBN 1-889756-30-X, retrieved 31 January 2014
- Fuller, Jason Dale (2005). Bhaktivinode Thakur and the transformation of religious authority among the Gauḍīya Vaisṣṇavas In nineteenth-century Bengal (Ph.D.). University of Pennsylvania. UMI Microform 3179733. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.|
- Gaudiya Vaishnavism – The Tradition of Chaitanya
- Krishna.com "All about Krishna." Teachings, history, art, MP3s.
- Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Website containing information about books authored by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
- Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu: His Life and Precepts
- The Teachings of Lord Chaitanya Online Book
- Srimad Bhagavatam 11.5.32 A Verse from the Bhagavata Purana, which refers to Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
- Scriptural Statements/Predictions regarding Caitanya Mahaprabhu's birth
- Chaitanya Charitamrta Online Biography
- List of biographical works and other sources
- Golden Volcano — A Tragedy of Separation The Golden Volcano of Divine Love (by Srila B.R. Sridhar Maharaj)
- Lord Gouranga and His Message of Devotion (theosophical.ca)
- Chaitanya Mahaprabhu By Mahashakti Dasa
- Lord Gauranga – biography by Swami Sivananda
- Traditional Sanskrit scholars of Gaudiya Vaishnavism The center in Vrindavan for traditional Sanskrit studies pertaining to Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
- Sri Chaitanya Bhagavata Biography on-line/download
- Sri Chaitanya Upanishad from Atharva Veda (Sri Caitanyopanisad)