Saposhnikovia divaricata, known as fángfēng 防風 (lit. "protect against the wind") in Chinese, bangpung in Korean, and siler in English, is the sole species in the genus Saposhnikovia (family Apiaceae). The plant is still frequently referenced under the obsolete genus name Ledebouriella in many online sources devoted to Traditional Chinese medicine.
Publication of binomial
Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turczaninow) Schischkin in Schischkin, Boris & Bobrov, Yevgeny Grigoryevich Fl. URSS. 17 : 54. 1951. Described originally under the name Stenocoelium divaricatum by Nikolai Turczaninow in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 17 : 734. in the year 1844.
Glabrous, much-branched, perennial herb, arising from branched, annular, tuberous rootstock up to 2cm thick, with crown surrounded by fibrous, remnant, sheathing bases of petioles. Height 30-100cm. Basal leaves numerous, petioles flattened with ovate sheaths, 2 - 6.5cm in length; leaf-blades oblong-ovate to broad-ovate, up to 35 x 18cm (usually smaller), bi- to tripinnatifid, pinnae 3 - 4 pairs, petiolulate, terminal lobes lanceolate, 3-lobed at apex. Upper leaves simplified with sheathing petioles, reduced upwards, often absent, leading to aphyllous branching. Umbels compound, devoid of involucral bracts, rays 5-9, bracteoles 4-5, pedicels 4-9, flowers white or yellow, petals circa 1.5mm. Mericarps broadly ovate to oblong, flat, up to 5 x 3mm, tuberculate when young but becoming smooth at maturity, lateral ribs winged. Flowering August-September and fruiting September-October.
Grassy and stony slopes, 400-800m. Margins of rice paddies, roadsides and waste places.
Saposhnikovia divaricata is found, in China, in the provinces of Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Hunan, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning. The plant also occurs in Russia, Mongolia, Korea and Japan.
Most of the plants harvested are collected in the provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Hebei. The tuberous rootstocks are harvested in early spring or late autumn (when the plants have yet to flower or have finished flowering) washed, trimmed of basal leaves and fibrous roots, sun-dried until they contain 20% moisture, shredded and then sun-dried again until completely desiccated and ready for storage.
The roots and seeds of Saposhnikovia divaricata contain a variety of phytochemicals under basic research, including furocoumarins, furanochromones, polyacetylenes, hyperosides and terpenes. The major components of the essential oil from roots of S. divaricata are caryophyllene oxide, sabinene, α- and β-pinene, myrtenal, myrtenol, α-terpineol, p-cymene and nonanoic acid.
- "Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- "Taxon: Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk". Taxonomy - GRIN-Global Web v 220.127.116.11. U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. 29 October 2007. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- "Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turczaninow) Schischkin". Online Flora of China. 1951.
- "Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk". Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Medicinal Plant Images Database. 2007.
- Schultes, Richard Evans; Albert Hofmann (1979). Plants of the Gods: Origins of Hallucinogenic Use. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-056089-7. Illustrated, with description, p.56 column 3 under name Siler divaricatum.
- Quattrocchi, Umberto (2012). CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. Volume 5 R-Z. CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, page 155.
- Gui, Y; Tsao, R; Li, L; Liu, C. M; Wang, J; Zong, X (2011). "Preparative separation of chromones in plant extract of Saposhnikovia divaricata by high-performance counter-current chromatography". Journal of Separation Science. 34 (5): 520–6. doi:10.1002/jssc.201000721. PMID 21280212.
- Tang, Weici and Eisenbrand, Gerhard (2011). Handbook of Chinese Medicinal Plants: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology. Wiley. pp. 1062–64 (vol. 2). ISBN 978-3-527-32226-8.
- Zhu, You-Ping (1998). Chinese Materia Medica: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Applications. CRC Press. pp. 62–3.