# Chudnovsky algorithm

The Chudnovsky algorithm is a fast method for calculating the digits of π, based on Ramanujan’s π formulae. It was published by the Chudnovsky brothers in 1988.[1]

It was used in the world record calculations of 2.7 trillion digits of π in December 2009,[2] 10 trillion digits in October 2011,[3][4] 22.4 trillion digits in November 2016,[5] 31.4 trillion digits in September 2018–January 2019,[6] 50 trillion digits on January 29, 2020,[7] 62.8 trillion digits on August 14, 2021,[8] and 100 trillion digits on March 21, 2022.[9]

## Algorithm

The algorithm is based on the negated Heegner number ${\displaystyle d=-163}$, the j-function ${\displaystyle j\left({\tfrac {1+i{\sqrt {163}}}{2}}\right)=-640320^{3}}$, and on the following rapidly convergent generalized hypergeometric series:[2]

${\displaystyle {\frac {1}{\pi }}={\frac {\sqrt {10005}}{4270934400}}\sum _{q=0}^{\infty }{\frac {(6q)!(13591409+545140134q)}{(3q)!(q!)^{3}\left(-640320\right)^{3q}}}}$

A detailed proof of this formula can be found here:[10]

There are 3 big integer terms (the multinomial term Mq, the linear term Lq, and the exponential term Xq) that make up the series and π equals the constant C divided by the sum of the series, as below:

${\displaystyle \pi =C\left(\sum _{q=0}^{\infty }{\frac {M_{q}\cdot L_{q}}{X_{q}}}\right)^{-1}}$, where:
${\displaystyle C=426880{\sqrt {10005}}}$,
${\displaystyle M_{q}={\frac {(6q)!}{(3q)!(q!)^{3}}}}$,
${\displaystyle L_{q}=545140134q+13591409}$,
${\displaystyle X_{q}=(-262537412640768000)^{q}}$.

The terms Mq, Lq, and Xq satisfy the following recurrences and can be computed as such:

{\displaystyle {\begin{alignedat}{4}L_{q+1}&=L_{q}+545140134\,\,&&{\textrm {where}}\,\,L_{0}&&=13591409\\[4pt]X_{q+1}&=X_{q}\cdot (-262537412640768000)&&{\textrm {where}}\,\,X_{0}&&=1\\[4pt]M_{q+1}&=M_{q}\cdot \left({\frac {(12q+2)(12q+6)(12q+10)}{(q+1)^{3}}}\right)\,\,&&{\textrm {where}}\,\,M_{0}&&=1\\[4pt]\end{alignedat}}}

The computation of Mq can be further optimized by introducing an additional term Kq as follows:

{\displaystyle {\begin{alignedat}{4}K_{q+1}&=K_{q}+12\,\,&&{\textrm {where}}\,\,K_{0}&&=-6\\[4pt]M_{q+1}&=M_{q}\cdot \left({\frac {K_{q+1}^{3}-16K_{q+1}}{\left(q+1\right)^{3}}}\right)\,\,&&{\textrm {where}}\,\,M_{0}&&=1\\[12pt]\end{alignedat}}}

Note that

${\displaystyle e^{\pi {\sqrt {163}}}\approx 640320^{3}+743.99999999999925\dots }$ and
${\displaystyle 640320^{3}=262537412640768000}$
${\displaystyle 545140134=163\cdot 127\cdot 19\cdot 11\cdot 7\cdot 3^{2}\cdot 2}$
${\displaystyle 13591409=13\cdot 1045493}$

This identity is similar to some of Ramanujan's formulas involving π,[2] and is an example of a Ramanujan–Sato series.

The time complexity of the algorithm is ${\displaystyle O\left(n(\log n)^{3}\right)}$.[11]

## References

1. ^ Chudnovsky, David; Chudnovsky, Gregory (1988), Approximation and complex multiplication according to ramanujan, Ramanujan revisited: proceedings of the centenary conference
2. ^ a b c Baruah, Nayandeep Deka; Berndt, Bruce C.; Chan, Heng Huat (2009), "Ramanujan's series for 1/π: a survey", American Mathematical Monthly, 116 (7): 567–587, doi:10.4169/193009709X458555, JSTOR 40391165, MR 2549375
3. ^ Yee, Alexander; Kondo, Shigeru (2011), 10 Trillion Digits of Pi: A Case Study of summing Hypergeometric Series to high precision on Multicore Systems, Technical Report, Computer Science Department, University of Illinois, hdl:2142/28348
4. ^ Aron, Jacob (March 14, 2012), "Constants clash on pi day", New Scientist
5. ^ "22.4 Trillion Digits of Pi". www.numberworld.org.
6. ^ "Google Cloud Topples the Pi Record". www.numberworld.org/.
7. ^ "The Pi Record Returns to the Personal Computer". www.numberworld.org/.
8. ^ "Pi-Challenge - Weltrekordversuch der FH Graubünden - FH Graubünden". www.fhgr.ch. Retrieved 2021-08-17.
9. ^ "Calculating 100 trillion digits of pi on Google Cloud". cloud.google.com. Retrieved 2022-06-10.
10. ^ Milla, Lorenz (2018), A detailed proof of the Chudnovsky formula with means of basic complex analysis, arXiv:1809.00533
11. ^ "y-cruncher - Formulas". www.numberworld.org. Retrieved 2018-02-25.