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In mathematics, particularly in dynamical systems theory, an Arnold tongue is a phase-locked or mode-locked region in a driven (kicked) weakly-coupled harmonic oscillator. Arnold tongues are observed in a large variety of complex vibrating systems, including the inharmonicity of musical instruments, orbital resonance and tidal locking of orbiting moons, mode-locking in fiber optics and phase-locked loops and other electronic oscillators, as well as in cardiac rhythms and heart arrhythmias.
One of the simplest physical models that exhibits mode-locking consists of two rotating disks connected by a weak spring. One disk is allowed to spin freely, and the other is driven by a motor. Mode locking occurs when the freely-spinning disk turns at a frequency that is a rational number of the driven rotator.
The simplest mathematical model that exhibits mode-locking is the circle map, which attempts to capture the motion of the spinning disks at discrete time intervals.
Arnold tongues are named after Vladimir Arnold.
Standard circle map
Arnold tongues were first investigated for a family of dynamical systems on the circle first defined by Andrey Kolmogorov. Kolmogorov proposed this family as a simplified model for driven mechanical rotors, and specifically, for a free-spinning wheel weakly coupled by a spring to a motor. The circle map also provides a simple model of the phase-locked loop in electronics, of mechanically or acoustically coupled musical instruments, and of cardiac tissue. The map exhibits certain regions of its parameters where it is locked to the driving frequency, commonly referred to as phase-locking or mode-locking.
The circle map is given by iterating the map
where is to be interpreted as polar angle such that its value lies between 0 and 1.
It has two parameters, the coupling strength K and the driving phase Ω. As a model for phase-locked loops, Ω may be interpreted as a driving frequency. For K = 0 and Ω irrational, the map reduces to an irrational rotation.
For small to intermediate values of K (that is, in the range of K = 0 to about K = 1), and certain values of Ω, the map exhibits a phenomenon called mode locking or phase locking. In a phase-locked region, the values θn advance essentially as a rational multiple of n, although they may do so chaotically on the small scale.
The limiting behavior in the mode-locked regions is given by the rotation number
which is also sometimes referred to as the map winding number.
The phase-locked regions, or Arnold tongues, are illustrated in yellow in the figure above. Each such V-shaped region touches down to a rational value Ω = p/ in the limit of K → 0. The values of (K,Ω) in one of these regions will all result in a motion such that the rotation number ω = p/. For example, all values of (K,Ω) in the large V-shaped region in the bottom-center of the figure correspond to a rotation number of ω = 1/. One reason the term "locking" is used is that the individual values θn can be perturbed by rather large random disturbances (up to the width of the tongue, for a given value of K), without disturbing the limiting rotation number. That is, the sequence stays "locked on" to the signal, despite the addition of significant noise to the series θn. This ability to "lock on" in the presence of noise is central to the utility of the phase-locked loop electronic circuit.
There is a mode-locked region for every rational number p/. It is sometimes said that the circle map maps the rationals, a set of measure zero at K = 0, to a set of non-zero measure for K ≠ 0. The largest tongues, ordered by size, occur at the Farey fractions. Fixing K and taking a cross-section through this image, so that ω is plotted as a function of Ω, gives the "Devil's staircase", a shape that is generically similar to the Cantor function.
The circle map also exhibits subharmonic routes to chaos, that is, period doubling of the form 3, 6, 12, 24,....
Chirikov standard map
The Chirikov standard map is related to the circle map, having similar recurrence relations, which may be written as
with both iterates taken modulo 1. In essence, the standard map introduces a momentum pn which is allowed to dynamically vary, rather than being forced fixed, as it is in the circle map. The standard map is studied in physics by means of the kicked rotor Hamiltonian.
Arnold tongues have been applied to the study of
- Cardiac rhythms (see Glass et al., McGuinness et al. below)
- Synchronisation of a resonant tunneling diode oscillators (Romeira et al.)
- Weinstein, Eric. "Map Winding Number". MathWorld. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- Weisstein, Eric W. "Circle Map". MathWorld.
- Philip L. Boyland : Bifurcations of circle maps: Arnol'd tongues, bistability and rotation intervals Comm. Math. Phys. Volume 106, Number 3 (1986), 353-381.
- Robert Gilmore and Marc Lefranc, The Topology of Chaos, Alice in Stretch and Squeezeland, (2002) Wiley Interscience ISBN 0-471-40816-6 (Provides a brief review of basic facts in section 2.12).
- Leon Glass, Michael R. Guevara, Alvin Shrier, Rafael Perez, "Bifurcation and Chaos in a Periodically Stimulated Cardiac Oscillator", Physica 7D (1983) pp 89–101. Bound as Order in Chaos, Proceedings of the International Conference on Order and Chaos held at the Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545,USA 24–28 May 1982, Eds. David Campbell, Harvey Rose; North-Holland Amsterdam ISBN 0-444-86727-9. (Performs a detailed analysis of heart cardiac rhythms in the context of the circle map.)
- Mark McGuinness and Young Hong, Arnold tongues in human cardiorespiratory system, Chaos, March 2004, 14, 1.
- Romeira, B. et al. "Chaotic Dynamics in Resonant Tunneling Optoelectronic Voltage Controlled Oscillators”, (2009) IEEE Photonics Technology Letter, Vol. 21, No. 24, 1819-1821.
- Circle map with interactive Java applet