Coastal taipan

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Coastal taipan
Costal Tiapan at Taronga Zoo.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Subphylum:
Class:
Order:
Suborder:
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Genus:
Species:
O. scutellatus
Binomial name
Oxyuranus scutellatus
(W. Peters, 1867)[1]
Oxyuranus scutellatus range.png
Distribution of Oxyuranus scutellatus in green
Synonyms
  • Pseudechis scutellatus
    W. Peters, 1867
  • Pseudechis wilesmithii De Vis, 1911
  • Oxyuranus scutellatus
    — Thomson, 1933 [1]

The coastal taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus), or common taipan,[2] is a species of large, highly venomous snake of the family Elapidae. It is native to the coastal regions of northern and eastern Australia and the island of New Guinea. According to most toxicological studies, this species is the third-most venomous land snake in the world based on its murine LD50.[3][4]

Physical description

A coastal taipan.

Coastal taipans are large snakes. It is the largest venomous snake in Australia.[5] Adult specimens of this species typically attains sexual maturity around 1.2 m (3.9 ft) in total length (body + tail). More mature specimens can grow to between 1.5 and 2.0 m (4.9 and 6.6 ft). Other taipans, including the inland taipan, attain broadly similar sizes although tend to be slightly smaller in average size. A specimen of an average 1.96 m (6.4 ft) total length scales around 3 kg (6.6 lb).[6] According to the Queensland Museum, the longest recorded total length for the coastal taipan was a specimen that was 2.9 m (9.5 ft) and weighed 6.5 kg (14 lb).[5] However, though exceptionally rare, much larger specimens are widely believed to exist, including specimens of as much as 3.3 m (11 ft).[7]

The head of this species is long, narrow and big like that of the African black mamba (but without the "coffin" shape). In fact, in several aspects of morphology, ecology and behaviour, the coastal taipan is strongly convergent with the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis).[8] It has an angular brow and is lighter coloured on the face. The body is slender, yet strong and sturdy, and colouration can vary.[9] They are often uniformly light olive or reddish-brown in colour, but some specimens may be dark gray to black. The colouration gets lighter on the sides of the body, and the ventral side (the belly) is usually a creamy-white to a pale light yellow in colour, and is often marked with orange or pink flecks. Individuals undergo a seasonal change in colour, becoming darker in winter and fading in summer.[10] The eyes are round, big and are light brown or even hazel in colour with big pupils.[9][11]

Scalation

Dorsal scales at mid-body number 21–23, ventrals 220–250, subcaudals 45–80; the subcaudals are divided, and the anal plate is single, temporals 2+3 (3+4).[12]

Distribution and habitat

Coastal taipans occur only in Australia and the island of New Guinea, which comprises two Indonesian provinces on the west side of the island and the nation of Papua New Guinea on the east side of the island.

Found in northern and eastern Australia, the coastal taipan snake, despite its name, do live in habitats hundreds of kilometres away from the nearest beach. Areas from north-western Western Australia, the Northern Territory, across Cape York Peninsula and down eastern Queensland into northern New South Wales (as far south as Grafton) can play host to them.[9]

Coastal taipans do not live anywhere where the maximum winter temperature is only 20 °C (68 °F).[13] The second subspecies (Oxyuranus scutellatus canni) is found throughout the island of New Guinea, with higher concentrations of the snake being found in the nation of Papua New Guinea.[14]

Habitat

Coastal taipans can be found in a variety of different habitats. They can be found in warm, wetter temperate to tropical coastal regions, in monsoon forests, wet and dry sclerophyll forests and woodlands, and in natural and artificial grassy areas, including grazing paddocks, and disused rubbish tips.[14][15] In Queensland, they have adapted well to sugarcane fields, where they thrive on the rodent population in the fields. In Far North Queensland in the Cape York Peninsula, they are usually found in open woodland areas.[9] Thickets of introduced lantana are also favoured habitat. The coastal taipan shelters in abandoned animal burrows, hollow logs and in piles of vegetation and litter.[15]

Behaviour and diet

The coastal taipan is primarily diurnal, being mostly active in the early to mid-morning period, although it may become nocturnal in hot weather conditions. When hunting, it appears to actively scan for prey using its well-developed eyesight, and is often seen traveling with its head raised slightly above ground level. Once prey is detected, the snake ‘freezes’ before hurling itself forward and issuing several quick bites. The prey is released and allowed to stagger away. This strategy minimises the snake’s chance of being harmed in retaliation, particularly by rats, which can inflict lethal damage with their long incisors and claws.[16] It is not a confrontational snake and will seek to escape any threat. When cornered, though, it can become very aggressive and may strike repeatedly.[15]

Diet

These snakes feed solely on warm-blooded animals, such as mammals and birds. Rats, mice, bandicoots, and various species of birds make up their entire diet.[15]

Venom

This snake is the world's third-most venomous snake. The SC LD50 value of this species is 0.106 mg/kg, according to Australian Venom and Toxin database,[4] and 0.12 mg/kg, according to Engelmann and Obst (1981). The average venom yield per bite is 120 mg,[17] with a maximum record of 400 mg.[4]

Its venom contains primarily taicatoxin, a highly potent neurotoxin affecting the nervous system and the blood’s ability to clot. Bite victims may experience headache, nausea/vomiting, collapse, convulsions, paralysis, internal bleeding, myolysis (destruction of muscle tissue), and kidney damage.[10][18] In case of severe envenomation, death can occur as early as 30 minutes after being bitten, but average death time after a bite is around 2.5 hours and it is variable, depending on various factors such as the nature of the bite and the health state of the victim.[18] Untreated bites have a mortality rate of 100% as it always delivers a fatal dose of venom, so seek immediate medical attention even for apparently minor bites. Before the introduction of specific antivenom by the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories in 1956, nearly all bites were fatal.[10][18][19]

Subspecies

Subspecies[20] Taxon author[20] Common name Geographic range
Oxyuranus scutellatus canni Slater, 1956 Papuan Taipan Throughout the southern portion of the island of New Guinea[14]
Oxyuranus scutellatus scutellatus (W. Peters, 1867) Coastal Taipan Australia: coastal Queensland, northern parts of Northern Territory and the northeastern parts of Western Australia[13]

References

  1. ^ a b "Oxyuranus scutellatus (PETERS, 1867)". The Reptile Database. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  2. ^ "CSL Taipan Antivenom". CSL Antivenom Handbook. www.toxinology.com. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  3. ^ Ernst, Carl H.; Zug, George R. (1996). Snakes in Question: The Smithsonian Answer Book. Washington D.C., USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. ISBN 1-56098-648-4.
  4. ^ a b c Séan Thomas & Eugene Griessel - Dec 1999. "LD50".
  5. ^ a b "FAQ: Snakes". Australian Venom Research Unit. University of Melbourne. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ "Oxyuranus scutellatus - General Details". Clinical Toxinology Resource. University of Adelaide. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  8. ^ Shine, Richard; Covacevich, Jeanette. (March 1983). "A Ecology of Highly Venomous Snakes: the Australian Genus Oxyuranus (Elapidae)". Journal of Herpetology. 17 (1): 60–69. doi:10.2307/1563782.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ a b c d "Coastal Taipan". Queensland Museum. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  10. ^ a b c http://australianmuseum.net.au/Coastal-Taipan
  11. ^ Hoser, R.T. (May 2002). "AN OVERVIEW OF THE TAIPANS, GENUS (OXYURANUS) (SERPENTES: ELAPIDAE) INCLUDING THE DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SUBSPECIES". Crocodilian - Journal of the Victorian Association of Amateur Herpetologists. 3 (1): 43–50.
  12. ^ "Devenomized - Oxyuranus scutellatus" (PDF). Devenomized. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  13. ^ a b Shine, R.; Covacevich, J. (1983). "Ecology of highly venomous snakes: the Australian genus Oxyuranus (Elapidae)". Journal of Herpetology. 17: 60–69. doi:10.2307/1563782.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  14. ^ a b c O'Shea, Mark. (1996). A Guide to the Snakes of Papua New Guinea. Independent Publishing Group. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. 251 pp. ISBN 981-00-7836-6.
  15. ^ a b c d "Animal Species: Coastal Taipan". Australian Museum. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  16. ^ Wilson, Steve, and Gerry Swan. (2011). A Complete Guide to the Reptiles of Ausasdfghjtralia. New Holland Publishers Pty. Ltd. Australia. 558 pp. ISBN 978-1-877069-76-5.
  17. ^ Engelmann, Wolf-Eberhard (1981). Snakes: Biology, Behavior, and Relationship to Man. Leipzig; English version NY, USA: Leipzig Publishing; English version published by Exeter Books (1982). p. 222. ISBN 0-89673-110-3.
  18. ^ a b c "IMMEDIATE FIRST AID for bites by Australian Taipan or Common Taipan".
  19. ^ Brown, JH (1973). Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. p. 184. ISBN 0-398-02808-7. LCCN 73-229.
  20. ^ a b ITIS

Further reading

  • Barnett, Brian. "Keeping and Breeding the Coastal Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus)". Journal of the Victorian Herpetological Society, 10 (2/3), 1999 (pages 38–45).
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume III., Containing the Colubridæ (Opisthoglyphæ and Proteroglyphæ),... Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, printers.) London. xiv + 727 pp. + Plates I.- XXV. (Pseudechis scutellatus, pp. 331–332.)
  • Peters, W. 1867. Über Flederthiere...und Amphibien... Monatsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1867: 703–712. ("Pseudechis scutellatus n. sp.", pp. 710–711.)
  • Williams, David. "The Death of Kevin Budden". David Williams' Australian Herpetology Online, January 2004.