Communication access real-time translation

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Communication access real-time translation (CART), also called open captioning or real-time stenography, or simply real-time captioning, is the general name of the system that court reporters, closed captioners and voice writers, and others use to convert speech to text. A trained operator uses keyboard or stenography methods to transcribe spoken speech into written text. Speech to text software is used when voice writers provide CART. The text is recorded with the exact words that were spoken, relaying a reliable and accurate translation[1] that is broadcast to the recipient on a screen, laptop, or other device.[2] Speech to text software is used when voice writers provide CART. CART professionals have qualifications for added expertise (speed and accuracy) as compared to court reporters and other stenographers.

CART is useful for making communication accessible to those who are deaf or hard of hearing as real-time speech-to-text serves many with hearing loss and deafness. Captioning is mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) as an auxiliary aid or service.[3] CART is a viable option to use in conjunction with or instead of a sign language interpreter, however, the decision made about which medium should be used should be based on the needs of the individuals who require the service.[4] In schools with deaf and hard-of-hearing students, CART is used in the classroom: the provider types using stenography, and the students see the words on a screen enabling them to follow along in class and not be left behind.[1] The cost of CART services ranges from $60 to $200 per hour.[2] Because of this, some people look to Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) as a more cost effective service. However, ASR is not as accurate and can be delayed in response, making it less useful in classroom situations, but as technology progresses, ASR is likely to improve.[1] CART can also be useful for people whose first language is different from the language being used, to understand speakers with different voices and accents in many group situations (at work, in education, community events), to have a "transcript', and for learning languages.

Remote CART is done with the trained operator at a remote location. A voice connection such as a telephone, cellphone, or computer microphone is used to send the voice to the operator, and the real-time text is transmitted back over a modem, Internet, or other data connection.

Some people use CART as the short form of computer assisted realtime transcription. The service is identical.

In some countries, CART may be referred to as Palantype, Velotype, STTR (speech to text reporting).


  1. ^ a b c "Improving Real-Time Captioning Experiences for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students | Proceedings of the 18th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility". doi:10.1145/2982142.2982164. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  2. ^ a b "What is CART and FAQ's – Find a CART Captioning Provider". CAPTIONING ACTIVISM AND COMMUNITY. 2012-09-11. Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  3. ^ "ADA Requirements: Effective Communication". Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  4. ^ "National Association of the Deaf - NAD". Retrieved 2020-04-20.

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