Concorde TSP Solver

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The Concorde TSP Solver is a program for solving the travelling salesman problem. It was written by David Applegate, Robert E. Bixby, Vašek Chvátal, and William J. Cook, in ANSI C, and is freely available for academic use.

Concorde has been applied to problems of gene mapping,[1] protein function prediction,[2] vehicle routing,[3] conversion of bitmap images to continuous line drawings,[4] scheduling ship movements for seismic surveys,[5] and in studying the scaling properties of combinatorial optimization problems.[6]

According to Mulder & Wunsch (2003), Concorde “is widely regarded as the fastest TSP solver, for large instances, currently in existence.” In 2001, Concorde won a 5000 guilder prize from CMG for solving a vehicle routing problem the company had posed in 1996.[7]



  • Aldous, David; Percus, Allon G. (2003), "Scaling and universality in continuous length combinatorial optimization", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100 (20): 11211–11215, arXiv:cond-mat/0301035, Bibcode:2003PNAS..10011211A, doi:10.1073/pnas.1635191100, PMC 208736, PMID 14504403.
  • Applegate, David; Cook, William; Dash, Sanjeeb; Rohe, André (2002), "Solution of a min-max vehicle routing problem", INFORMS Journal on Computing, 14 (2): 132–143, doi:10.1287/ijoc.
  • Bosch, Robert; Herman, Adrianne (2004), "Continuous line drawings via the traveling salesman problem" (PDF), Operations Research Letters, 32 (4): 302–303, doi:10.1016/j.orl.2003.10.001.
  • Gutin, Gregory; Jakubowicz, Helmut; Ronen, Shuki; Zverovitch, Alexei (2005), "Seismic vessel problem" (PDF), Communications in DQM, 8: 13–20.
  • Hitte, C.; Lorentzen, T. D.; Guyon, R.; Kim, L.; Cadieu, E.; Parker, H. G.; Quignon, P.; Lowe, J. K.; et al. (2003), "Comparison of MultiMap and TSP/CONCORDE for constructing radiation hybrid maps", Journal of Heredity, 94 (1): 9–13, doi:10.1093/jhered/esg012, PMID 12692156.
  • Johnson, Olin; Liu, Jing (2006), "A traveling salesman approach for predicting protein functions", Source Code for Biology and Medicine, 1: 3, doi:10.1186/1751-0473-1-3, PMC 1636333, PMID 17147783.
  • Mulder, Samuel A.; Wunsch, Donald C., II (2003), "Million city traveling salesman problem solution by divide and conquer clustering with adaptive resonance neural networks", Neural Networks, 16 (5–6): 827–832, doi:10.1016/S0893-6080(03)00130-8, PMID 12850040.

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