2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone

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2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone[1]
Structural formula of dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone
Space-filling model of the dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone molecule
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
4,5-Dichloro-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,2-dicarbonitrile[2]
Other names
  • 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone
  • 4,5-Dichloro-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cyclohexadiene-1,2-dicarbonitrile
  • Dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
Abbreviations DDQ
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.402
EC Number 201-542-2
RTECS number GU4825000
Properties
C8Cl2N2O2
Molar mass 227.00 g·mol−1
Appearance yellow to orange powder
Density 1.7g/cm3
Melting point 210 to 215 °C (410 to 419 °F; 483 to 488 K) (decomposes)
Boiling point 301.8 °C (575.2 °F; 575.0 K) at 760mmHg
reacts
Hazards
R-phrases (outdated) R25 R29
S-phrases (outdated) S22 S24/25 S37 S45
Flash point 136.3 °C (277.3 °F; 409.4 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (or DDQ) is the chemical reagent with formula C6Cl2(CN)2O2. This oxidant is useful for the dehydrogenation of alcohols,[3] phenols,[4] and steroid ketones[5] in organic chemistry. DDQ decomposes in water, but is stable in aqueous mineral acid.[6]

Preparation[edit]

Synthesis of DDQ involves cyanation of chloranil. Thiele and Günther first reported a 6-step preparation in 1906.[7] The substance did not receive interest until its potential as a dehydrogenation agent was discovered. A single-step chlorination from 2,3-dicyanohydroquinone was reported in 1965.[8]

Reactions[edit]

The reagent removes pairs of H atoms from organic molecules. The stoichiometry of its action is illustrated by the conversion of tetralin to naphthalene:

2 C6Cl2(CN)2O2 + C10H12 → 2 C6Cl2(CN)2(OH)2 + C10H8

The resulting hydroquinone is poorly soluble in typical reaction solvents (dioxane, alkanes), which facilitates workup.

Dehydrogenation[edit]

DDQ-dehydrogenation.png

Aromatization[edit]

DDQ aromatization rearrangement.png[9]

Oxidative coupling[edit]

DDQ-oxi-coupling1.png
[10]

Safety[edit]

DDQ reacts with water with release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), which is highly toxic. A low-temperature and weakly acidic environment increases the stability of DDQ.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone at Sigma-Aldrich
  2. ^ Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-FP001. 
  3. ^ Braude, E. A; Linstead, R. P.; Wooldridge, K. R. H. (1956). "593. Hydrogen Transfer. Part IX The Selective Dehydrogenation of Unsaturated Alcohols by High-potential Quinones". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed). 1956: 3070–3074. doi:10.1039/JR9560003070. 
  4. ^ Becker, H. D. (1965). "Quinone Dehydrogenation. I. Oxidation of Monohydric Phenols". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 30 (4): 982–989. doi:10.1021/jo01015a006. 
  5. ^ Turner, A. B.; Ringold, H. J. (1967). "Applications of High-potential Quinones. Part I. The Mechanism of Dehydrogenation of Steroidal Ketones by 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-Dicyanobenzoquinone". Journal of the Chemical Society C: Organic. 1967: 1720–1730. doi:10.1039/J39670001720. 
  6. ^ Derek R. Buckle, Steven J. Collier, Mark D. McLaws "2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone" in E-EROS ENCYCLOPEDIA OF REAGENTS FOR ORGANIC SYNTHESIS, 2005. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rd114.pub2
  7. ^ Thiele, J.; Günther, F. (1906). "Ueber Abkömmlinge des Dicyanhydrochinons". Justus Liebig's Annalen der Chemie. 349 (1): 45–66. doi:10.1002/jlac.19063490103. 
  8. ^ Walker, D.; Waugh, T. D. (1965). "2,3-Dichloro-5,6-Dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ). A New Preparation". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 30 (9): 3240–3240. doi:10.1021/jo01020a529. 
  9. ^ Brown, W.; Turner, A. B. (1971). "Application of High-potential Quinones. 7. Synthesis of Steroidal Phenanthrenes by Double Methyl Migration". Journal of the Chemical Society C: Organic. 1971: 2566–2572. doi:10.1039/J39710002566. 
  10. ^ Zhang, Y.; Li, C. J. (2006). "DDQ-Mediated Direct Cross-Dehydrogenative-Coupling (CDC) between Benzyl Ethers and Simple Ketones". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 128 (13): 4242–4243. doi:10.1021/ja060050p. 

External links[edit]