Death of Colten Boushie

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On August 9, 2016, 22-year-old Colten Boushie died in a shooting incident in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, drawing national media attention and highlighting racial tensions in Canada.

Boushie was a resident of the Cree Red Pheasant First Nation of Saskatchewan. After getting a flat tire, he and four friends had driven to a farmhouse near Biggar, Saskatchewan, owned by Gerald Stanley. They had been drinking and had earlier tried to break into a truck at another farm. One of the group tried to start an ATV on the property and their SUV crashed into one of Stanley’s cars. Stanley reacted by retrieving a handgun from his shed and firing two warning shots into the air to scare the group off his property. He then approached the SUV, with Boushie in the driver's seat, and reached in to turn off the ignition when his gun discharged. Boushie was shot in the neck just below the ear and died instantly. Stanley's defence claimed the shot was an accident and that a third round loaded into the magazine was fired, yet failed to detonate, precipitating a hang fire.[1] Stanley was arrested and charged with second-degree murder. A jury acquitted him on February 9, 2018.

The case drew significant attention and provoked debates about racism in Saskatchewan and across Canada. People who supported Stanley generally perceived the trial as fair, given the circumstances of events leading up to the shooting. Supporters of the Boushie family felt the trial was unfair due to the selection of what appeared to be an all-white jury.[2] Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Minister of Justice Jody Wilson-Raybould denounced the verdict.[3] Critics scorned these comments for politicizing the trial and discrediting the Canadian judiciary system. The mayor of Saskatoon, Charlie Clark, said the trial and its aftermath represented "a defining moment for this community and this country".[4]

Background[edit]

Colten Boushie (October 31, 1993 – August 9, 2016) was a resident of the Cree Red Pheasant First Nation of Saskatchewan.[5]

The incident took place near Biggar, Saskatchewan.

According to the police Information To Obtain warrant (ITO), which was produced in the early stages of the investigation[Notes 1] and obtained by The Globe and Mail[6] on August 9, 2016, 22-year-old Colten Boushie and his girlfriend Kiora Wuttunee, Belinda Jackson and her boyfriend Eric Meechance,[7][8] and Cassidy Cross-Whitstone, all from the Red Pheasant First Nation, had spent the day swimming, drinking, and shooting[9][10] at the Maymont River.[11] Wuttunee's grey 2003 Ford Escape SUV got a flat tire.[11]

The ITO stated that Boushie's group first visited a neighbouring farm belonging to the Fouhy family, where they "attempted to steal vehicles and items"[6] by trying to smash the window of a truck with a .22 calibre rifle. Cross-Whitstone broke the stock of the rifle in this failed attempt.[12] They then drove on to Gerald Stanley's property near Biggar, Saskatchewan, in the Rural Municipality of Glenside No. 377,[13][14] which is about 57 kilometres (35 mi) from their home.[15]

When the SUV entered the Stanley property, Gerald Stanley and his son Sheldon were repairing a fence, while Stanley's wife Leesa was mowing the lawn not far away. The SUV's occupants first entered a truck belonging to one of Gerald's customers, then mounted an ATV.[16] Sheldon chased them away and smashed the SUV's windshield with a hammer. It "crashed into Stanley's wife's car and came to a halt".[attribution needed][17][10]

Stanley took a semi-automatic handgun from his shed, loaded it and "fired warning shots in the air" as Cross-Whitstone and Meechance ran from the ATV and fled the property.[10] Sheldon Stanley went into the house to get his truck keys.[18]

Gerald Stanley then approached the SUV with Boushie in the driver's seat[19] and Jackson and Wuttunee in the back. Stanley would later testify he saw the lawnmower his wife was using and thought that she had been run over. He reached in with his left hand to turn off the ignition while holding his handgun in his right hand. The handgun then discharged and Boushie was shot in the "back of the head at point blank range" at about 5:30 pm.[13][5] The RCMP later found a loaded .22-calibre rifle between his legs.[20][12][21][18][22] Jackson and Wuttunee then assaulted Leesa Stanley.[18]

Aftermath of the shooting[edit]

Boushie's supporters expressed frustration with the "flawed and inadequate" police inquiry, stating that it "initially focused more on the actions of the five young Indigenous people than on the killing of Mr. Boushie".[23] The person initially in charge of the investigation was a junior constable; no forensic experts were brought in. The Ford Escape SUV in which Boushie was killed, was "left uncovered, its doors open, for two rainy days, washing away evidence".[23]

On August 10, 2016, a media release from the RCMP said,[22] "A man was declared dead at the scene. Another man 'associated to the property' was arrested by police at the scene without incident. No charges were immediately laid. Three occupants of the vehicle—one woman, one girl and one man—were taken into custody as part of a related theft investigation, police said. Police later identified and located a fourth boy who was in the vehicle."[22][13]

This release explained that the witnesses to Boushie's killing were taken into custody "as part of a related theft investigation".[7] None of them were charged as the result of a plea deal in exchange for testimony.[7][not in citation given] Ultimately their testimony was deemed inconclusive due to inconsistencies of their accounts.[citation needed]

On August 12, the Federation of Sovereign Indigenous Nations (FSIN) representing 74 First Nations in Saskatchewan, issued a media release expressing disappointment in the way the RCMP presented the shooting incident. The RCMP statement "provided just enough prejudicial information for the average reader to draw their own conclusions that the shooting was somehow justified. The messaging in an RCMP news release should not fuel racial tensions ... The media's initial portrayal of the event made the incident sound like a crime was about to be committed by the passengers in the car."[24] The FSIN called for a review of the RCMP's communication policies and writing guidelines. The FSIN said that the "RCMP news release was biased and not in line with the relationship the FSIN and the RCMP have been building with measures such as the RCMP FSIN Partnership Protocol".[25]

The FSIN blamed the RCMP's August 10 statement for "racially charged social media posts"[26] that were posted on the Saskatchewan Farmers Group's Facebook pages[7][27] with photos of "farmers carrying firearms".[6] The RCMP Superintendent held a press conference asking "residents to put their guns away".[6] The Federation said that the RCMP media release "made it appear that Boushie's killing was justified"[26] by the "right to defend" and that the way the RCMP shared information about the incident had fuelled racial tensions in Saskatchewan.[22]

On the same day, the RCMP responded to the August 12 FSIN statement.[22]

Three days after the shooting, on August 12, 2016, CBC News reported that the "event had stimulated a lot of discussion on various social media platforms".[28][27] Paul Dornstauder, CBC's Executive Producer for Radio Current Affairs in Saskatchewan, described how "there was a vigorous and at times rancorous debate about what had happened and why, some of which was racist".

The article was the subject of investigation by CBC's ombudsman, following CBC's receipt of 25 complaints from readers concerned that "it was wrong of CBC News to publish this article, that it fed into a racist argument about Indigenous peoples that saw Mr. Boushie as a menace. It was seen as an endorsement of the use of violence by some readers."[attribution needed] One complainant asserted that the article mistakenly linked "property rights" to Boushie's death. The complainant called the article "irresponsible and damaging" as it "could fan racist sentiment". The article has since been revised.[28] Dornstauder described "this story as having had an electrifying effect in Saskatchewan". It is "complex and controversial", requiring sensitivity and "likely will continue to for some time to come".[28]

On August 15, Saskatchewan Premier Brad Wall called the comments "unacceptable, intolerant and a betrayal of the very values and character of Saskatchewan". He described them as "dangerous".[26] More than five hundred comments representing both sides of the debate appeared on Wall's Facebook page in response to his remarks.[26]

By August 17, 2016, the National Farmers Union published a statement in which they expressed their "profound sadness over the tragic shooting of Colten Boushie", and extended "deepest condolences to his family and community" and "as farmers", condemned "the rampant racist remarks that have circulated since the death of Colten Boushie, including comments made on the 'Saskatchewan Farmers' Facebook group".[29]

Robert Innes, a University of Saskatchewan professor, described the "racial tension" in Saskatchewan as a "tinder box" with "some farmers" "blaming First Nations people for rural crime. Their mentality is to protect their property."[25]

Bail hearing[edit]

Gerald Stanley's bail hearing was held in North Battleford on August 18, 2016.[6] Hundreds of people protested outside the North Battleford courthouse with RCMP on rooftops observing. On August 19, Stanley was granted bail on a $10,000 cash surety.[6] His bail included a number of conditions, including that he stay within 6.4 kilometres (4.0 miles) of his home and that he have no contact with Boushie's family or any of the witnesses.[30]

Trial[edit]

I know this is an emotional case and I know that people are very vested in what's happening, but that can't happen. It's not a sporting event where we're rooting for one team or another.

— Saskatchewan Chief Justice Martel D. Popescul February 8, 2018. Court of Queen's Bench, Court of Queen's Bench, Battleford, Saskatchewan

The trial took place from January 30, 2018,[8] to February 9, 2018, at the Court of Queen's Bench Saskatchewan in Battleford with Saskatchewan Chief Justice Martel D. Popescul presiding.[5]

The jury selection system allowed trial lawyers to use "peremptory challenges" to reject a limited number of potential jurors without giving a specific reason.[31][32] Seven hundred and fifty people were randomly summoned based on health cards for potential jury duty from the Battleford Jury Boundary, a huge area that stretches to the north of Saskatchewan.[33] The pool which was almost double the normal size was enlarged to help secure a more representative jury, though only 204 of the 750 individuals who were summoned actually showed up.[34][33] Five who appeared to be First Nations were challenged by the defence, leaving what appeared to be an all-white jury.[35][31][32][34]

During the trial, Stanley's attorney Scott Spencer said there was "no evidence" that Stanley intentionally killed Boushie.[36] By February 8, 2018, the jurors were deliberating on a verdict behind closed doors.[8] Judge Popescul "warned people in the gallery about making comments during [the] tense trial" and said that "it was the first time in his long career that he had to say that in court based on a complaint from a juror".[8]

During Judge Popescul's charge to the jury,[37] he instructed them:

You must not find Gerald Stanley guilty unless you are sure he is guilty. Even if you believe that Mr. Stanley is probably guilty or likely guilty, that is not sufficient. In those circumstances, you must give the benefit of the doubt to Mr. Stanley and find him not guilty because the Crown has failed to satisfy you of his guilt beyond a reasonable doubt." He also stated "If you have a reasonable doubt about Mr. Stanley's guilt arising from the evidence, the absence of the evidence, or the credibility or the reliability of one or more of the witnesses then you must find him not guilty. In short, the presumption of innocence applies at the beginning and continues throughout the trial, unless you are satisfied after considering the whole of the evidence that the Crown has displaced the presumption of innocence by proof of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.[38]

"Hang fire" defence[edit]

The defence case relied heavily on the assertion that the fatal shot was unintentional and the result of a hang fire.[39] The casing from the fatal shot had an unusual bulge which testing of the gun could not reproduce.[40]

The gun used was a 1947 Tokarev T33 with surplus military ammunition from 1953. The ammunition had been stored in an unheated shed where the temperature varied between 30 °C (86 °F) and −30 °C (−22 °F).[41] Experts concluded nevertheless that the gun was functioning properly and a misfire could not be replicated during testing.[19]

Verdict[edit]

Stanley was acquitted on February 9, 2018.[5] Since Canadian jurors are legally barred from discussing the proceedings, it is not known how the jury reached its verdict or whether the jury accepted that the gunshot that killed Boushie was hang fire.[42][39]

Impact[edit]

The case has exposed an ugly side in rural Saskatchewan—landowners who blame Indigenous people for high rates of property crime and First Nations who bear the brunt of that racism and hate.

— APTN News February 8, 2018

The story attracted widespread attention from social media and mainstream media.[15][28][27][32][31][23]

Following the announcement of the acquittal, about 1,000 people, including the mayor of Saskatoon, Charlie Clark,[31] gathered at a rally at the Saskatoon court house to show support for Boushie's family and to express frustration with the acquittal.[31] Other rallies and vigils took place in Battleford, Winnipeg, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Toronto, and Ottawa to challenge the verdict.[31] Clint Wuttunee, Chief of the Red Pheasant First Nation, called the verdict "absolutely perverse" and stated that "an all-white jury formed the twisted view of that obvious truth and found Stanley not guilty".[43][5]

In response to the verdict, Federation of Sovereign Indigenous Nations's Vice-chief David Pratt, challenged the jury selection system, saying that "defence counsel used peremptory challenges to block every potential juror who appeared to be Indigenous".[31] Prime Minister Justin Trudeau issued a statement on February 10, saying, "I am going to say we have come to this point as a country far too many times. Indigenous people across this country are angry, they're heartbroken and I know Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadians alike know that we have to do better."[31] Saskatchewan Premier Scott Moe said he would be meeting with Trudeau and with First Nations leadership.[31]

Canadian Justice Minister and Attorney General of Canada Jody Wilson-Raybould made a comment in a Tweet that Canada "can and must do better".[44] Jagmeet Singh, a criminal defence lawyer and the Leader of the New Democratic Party, told reporters on February 13 that "justice was not served for Colten Boushie".[45]

Toronto-based criminal defence lawyer Sean Robichaud said that it was "wholly inappropriate for elected officials to publicly undermine findings of a lawfully delivered verdict, particularly when it is one of a jury".[46] He cautioned that there could be ramifications. "By commenting on a particular case, it may affect the ability for Crown to proceed with the case if an appeal is granted."[45] Lisa Raitt, Deputy Leader of the Conservative Party, Rob Nicholson, and other Conservatives also criticised comments by Trudeau and Wilson-Raybould.[46]

At a press conference hosted by Saskatoon Tribal Council, Mayor Clark described the "high-profile trial and its aftermath—which included rallies across Canada—represent a defining moment for this community and this country. A defining moment for our city, our province, our country, where we decide what kind of country we’re going to be."[31][47] The Saskatoon StarPhoenix reported that Clark called for a "prompt reckoning across the country" as the acquittal had sparked "anxiety and anger".[47] Many chiefs across Saskatchewan, including northern communities, travelled to Saskatoon to attend the rally.[31]

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) issued a statement to remind concerned parties to "conduct themselves in a peaceful and civil manner regardless of the outcome", warning that "people will be held responsible for what they say or post online and police will investigate any complaints of suspected criminal behaviour".[43]

On February 10, thousands attended rallies across Canada in a day-of-action activities to support Boushie's family.[48] About 200 people gathered at Toronto's Nathan Phillips Square to protest the verdict that day.[49] On February 12, over 300 people gathered to march from Calgary City Hall to Reconciliation Bridge, in temperatures and wind chill that felt like −28 °C (−18 °F), to show support for Colten Boushie's family.[50]

By February 11, Colten Boushie's mother Debbie Baptiste, his cousin Jade Tootoosis, and uncle Alvin[51] had travelled to Ottawa from their remote community for potential meetings with Wilson-Raybould, Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale and other ministers, to advocate for justice. They called for "an end to peremptory challenges in jury selection, which were used in Mr. Stanley's trial to block every potential juror who appeared to be Indigenous". They are also challenging "a number of systemic problems in the justice system, as well as specific complaints arising from the way Mr. Boushie's death was investigated and prosecuted".[52]

On February 28, the Justice for our Stolen Children Camp was set up on Wascana Park in Regina in response to the death of Colten Boushie and Tina Fontaine.[53]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The ITO "(laid) out in detail for the first time the police perspective on the facts of the case and the information gathered in the early stages of the investigation. These documents are intended to persuade a judge to issue a warrant; they are not produced with balance in mind, nor do they weigh possibilities that run counter to police theories, but they must be full, frank and fair."[6]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Luck, Shaina (February 10, 2018). "'Shame on Canada': Vigils being held in N.S. over verdict in Colten Boushie case". CBC News. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  3. ^ "Ministers say Canada must 'do better' after Boushie verdict". CBC News. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  4. ^ "'Enough killing our people': Stanley verdict generates rallies and pleas for change". National Post. February 11, 2018. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e Graveland, Bill (February 10, 2018). "Not guilty verdict in shooting death of Colten Boushie 'absolutely perverse'". The Toronto Star. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Friesen, Joe (October 20, 2016). "The night Colten Boushie died: What family and police files say about his last day, and what came after". The Globe and Mail. North Battleford, Saskatchewan. Retrieved February 11, 2018. Updated November 12, 2017
  7. ^ a b c d Domise, Andray (August 25, 2016). "What the tragedy of Colten Boushie says about racism in Canada". Macleans. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Quenneville, Guy (February 8, 2018). "'Hearsay' from Reddit and other things the Gerald Stanley trial jury didn't hear". CBC News. Retrieved February 11, 2018. Judge warned people in the gallery about making comments during tense trial ... it was the first time in his long career that he had to say that in court based on a complaint from a juror.
  9. ^ Zinchuk, Brian (February 14, 2018). "Opinion: There is so much wrong being said by both sides about the Gerald Stanley trial". Vancouver Courier. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  10. ^ a b c Edwards, Kyle (February 10, 2018). "The Gerald Stanley verdict is a blow to reconciliation—and a terrifying one at that". Macleans. Retrieved February 11, 2018. White Canadians must know this verdict deepens Indigenous peoples' distrust in the system, which offers no justice to Colten Boushie
  11. ^ a b n (August 11, 2016). "Family devastated after Colten Boushie shot and killed on farm near Biggar, Sask". CBC News. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  12. ^ a b Quenneville, Guy (January 31, 2018). "'It just went off. I just wanted to scare them', son recalls Gerald Stanley saying after gun fired". CBC News. Retrieved February 11, 2018. 56-year-old has pleaded not guilty to 2nd-degree murder in fatal shooting of Colten Boushie
  13. ^ a b c "A 54-year-old man has been charged with second-degree murder in a shooting at a rural Saskatchewan farmyard near Biggar". Regina Leader-Post. August 11, 2016. Archived from the original on February 12, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
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  19. ^ a b "Full transcript of judge's instructions to Colten Boushie jury: Put yourself in a juror's shoes". National Post. February 14, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018. How the jury arrived at the verdict can never be known, but the judge’s instructions to them are part of the public record.
  20. ^ Quenneville, G.What happened on Gerald Stanley's farm the day Colten Boushie was shot, as told by witnesses CBC News, Feb 06, 2018 3:45 PM CT Last Updated: February 12, Access date = April 2, 2018.
  21. ^ Graveland, B., "Accused killer said gun 'just went off', son tells Colten Boushie murder trial" Star News, The Canadian Press, January 31, 2018, Access date = April 9, 2018
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  23. ^ a b c Austin, Ian (February 9, 2018). "A Murder Trial Stirs Emotions About Canada's Relations With Indigenous Population". Retrieved February 12, 2018.
  24. ^ "FSIN accuse RCMP of fuelling racial tensions after fatal Biggar, Sask., shooting". globalnews.ca. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  25. ^ a b "RCMP Media Release Brings to Light Saskatchewan's Racial Issues". FSIN. Treaty 6, Territory, Saskatoon. August 12, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  26. ^ a b c d "Responses flood in after Sask. premier asks for racist comments to stop after shooting". CBC News. August 15, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2018. Brad Wall says hateful comments on social media must end
  27. ^ a b c "Deadly shooting near Biggar, Sask., sparks debate over right to defend". CBC News. August 12, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2018. Social media buzzing with debate over deadly encounter
  28. ^ a b c d "Speculation as reporting - Proceed with caution". CBC News. September 27, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  29. ^ "National Farmers Union condemns racist online comments following Colten Boushie's death". CBC News. August 17, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2018. National group offers condolences to family of 22-year-old man
  30. ^ "A look at key events in the investigation and murder trial of Gerald Stanley". Metro News. February 8, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
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  32. ^ a b c Paradkar, Shree (February 10, 2018). "Our reaction to injustice for Colten Boushie is a reflection of our soul as individuals and Canadians". The Toronto Star. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  33. ^ a b Quenneville, Guy (January 28, 2018). "Huge' pool of 750 people summoned as potential jurors for Colten Boushie case". CBC News. Retrieved February 11, 2018. Boushie family hopes Gerald Stanley jury pool is representative of wider community, says lawyer
  34. ^ a b Quenneville, Guy (January 29, 2018). "Deck is stacked against us,' says family of Colten Boushie after jury chosen for Gerald Stanley trial". CBC News. Retrieved February 15, 2018. 'Every single visible Indigenous person' was challenged by defence attorney, according to Boushie's cousin
  35. ^ "How a broken jury list makes Ontario justice whiter, richer and less like your community". The Star. February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  36. ^ Graveland, Bill (February 8, 2018). "Defence claims no evidence Gerald Stanley intentionally killed Colten Boushie". The Toronto Star. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  37. ^ National Post staff (2018-02-14). "Full transcript of judge's instructions to Colten Boushie jury: Put yourself in a juror's shoes". The National Post.
  38. ^ Popescul, Martel D. (February 14, 2018). "Full transcript of judge's instructions to Colten Boushie jury: Put yourself in a juror's shoes". The National Post. Battleford, Saskatchewan. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
  39. ^ a b Plaxton, Michael (February 11, 2018). "The Stanley verdict: Manslaughter and 'hang fire'". The Globe and Mail. Battleford, Saskatchewan. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  40. ^ "Listen to episode 4 of CBC Saskatchewan's original podcast 'Boushie'". CBC News. February 8, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  41. ^ "Gerald Stanley trial: 'The thing just went off', testifies Sask. farmer accused in Colten Boushie's shooting death". Calgary Herald. 2018-02-05. Retrieved 2018-02-20.
  42. ^ Gollom, Mark (February 13, 2018). "What the Stanley jury likely considered in rendering its not guilty verdict". CBC News. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  43. ^ a b "Gerald Stanley acquitted of all charges in the death of Colten Boushie". APTN National News. February 10, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  44. ^ "After Stanley verdict, lawyers say political commentary risks justice system independence". Calgary Herald. Vancouver, BC. February 11, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  45. ^ a b Dangerfield, Katie (February 13, 2018). "Trudeau's comments on Boushie case may have 'tainted' a potential appeal process: lawyer". Global News. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  46. ^ a b "Tories accuse PM of 'political interference' after comments on Boushie case". CBC News. February 11, 2018. Retrieved February 13, 2018. Trudeau said Canada must 'do better' in the future
  47. ^ a b Macpherson, Alex (February 11, 2018). "Acquittal of Gerald Stanley in death of Colten Boushie 'a defining moment', says Saskatoon Mayor Charlie Clark". Saskatoon Star Phoenix. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  48. ^ Shakeri, Sima Shakeri (February 10, 2018). "Colten Boushie Day Of Action Sees Rallies Across Canada After Gerald Stanley Acquittal". Huntington Post. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  49. ^ Draaisma, Muriel (February 10, 2018). "Not guilty verdict in death of Colten Boushie is 'black eye' for Canada, says Indigenous leader". CBC News. Retrieved February 11, 2018. Comments by Isadore Day, AFN regional chief, come as people rally in downtown Toronto
  50. ^ Rieger, Sarah (February 12, 2018). "'We're not disposable': Hundreds march to Reconciliation Bridge demanding justice for Colten Boushie". CBC News. Retrieved February 11, 2018. 'I'm ashamed to be Canadian on a day like today', said attendee Shauna Jimenez
  51. ^ McMahon, Ryan (February 10, 2018). "The Gerald Stanley Verdict Shows There's No Justice for Indigenous Peoples". VICE. Retrieved February 12, 2018. Colten Boushie was shot dead on a Saskatchewan farm. An all-white jury decided the man that killed him did no wrong
  52. ^ Frieson, Joe (February 10, 2018). "Boushie family moves from anger to political advocacy in wake of acquittal". The Globe and Mail. Battleford. Retrieved February 11, 2018. Updated February 12
  53. ^ "After 108 days, Justice For Our Stolen Children camp comes down". Regina Leader-Post. 15 June 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2018.