Dinosaur (film)

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Dinosaur
Dinosaurmovieposter.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by
Produced byPam Marsden
Screenplay by
Story by
  • John Harrison
  • Robert Nelson Jacobs
  • Thom Enriquez
  • Ralph Zondag
Starring
Music byJames Newton Howard
Cinematography
  • David Hardberger
  • S. Douglas Smith
Edited byH. Lee Peterson
Production
company
Distributed byBuena Vista Pictures
Release date
  • May 19, 2000 (2000-05-19) (United States)
Running time
82 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$127.5 million[1]
Box office$349.8 million[1]

Dinosaur is a 2000 American computer-animated adventure film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and The Secret Lab. The 39th Disney animated feature film,1 it follows an orphaned, young Iguanodon named Aladar, who was an adopted friend of the lemurs and, after surviving a devastating meteor shower, are moving out for their new home. Along the way, they befriend a herd of dinosaurs who are being pursued by predators, such as the Carnotaurus, while on a journey to the "Nesting Grounds".

The initial idea was conceived in 1986 by Phil Tippett and Paul Verhoeven where it was conceived as a darker, naturalistic film about dinosaurs. The project underwent numerous iterations with multiple directors attached. In 1994, Walt Disney Feature Animation began development on the project and spent several years developing the software to create the dinosaurs. While the characters in Dinosaur are computer-generated, most of the backgrounds are live-action and were filmed on location. A number of backgrounds were found in various continents such as the Americas and Asia; various tepuis and Angel Falls also appear in the film.

Dinosaur was released on May 19, 2000 to mixed reviews from film critics who praised the animation and soundtrack, but criticized the story for being too similar to The Land Before Time. The film grossed over $349 million worldwide, becoming the fifth highest-grossing film of 2000.[1]

Plot[edit]

In a nearby breeding ground, a ferocious Carnotaurus ambushes an infant Parasaurolophus after it attracts its attention, triggering a stampede which forces an Iguanodon mother to abandon her nest. One surviving egg, after being removed from the nest by an Oviraptor and lost in a river following a fight with another, journeys through several dinosaur terrains via the flight of a Pteranodon before ending up on a faraway island populated by prehistoric lemurs. Plio, the daughter of their leader, Yar, names the hatched baby Aladar and raises him as her adopted son, despite Yar's initial objections. Years later, Aladar and the lemurs take part in a mating ritual, where his friend Zini is unable to achieve a mate. Moments after the ritual ends, a gigantic meteor crashes into the Earth, creating an explosion-like tsunami that destroys the island and kills all the lemurs. However, Aladar, along with Plio, Zini, Yar and Suri flee and survive by leaping across the sea towards the mainland. They mourn for the loss of their loved ones before moving on.

While crossing deserted wastelands, they are attacked by a pack of Velociraptors. After escaping from them, the family encounter a massive herd of dinosaurs led by two Iguanodon named Kron, who is their leader and his lieutenant Bruton, who are on their journey to the "Nesting Grounds", a valley said to be untouched by the devastation of the meteor. After the herd stop to rest for the night, Aladar befriends some members of the herd such as a Brachiosaurus named Baylene who is the last of her kind, a Styracosaurus named Eema and her pet dog-like Ankylosaurus named Url. Kron then permits them to follow the herd. The next morning, the herd begin to journey across the desert and finally reach a lake they have relied on for past trips. It has seemingly dried up and Kron orders the herd to move on. However, Aladar and his friends discover the buried water under the surface, thereby saving the herd from dehydration. Later, Kron's sister Neera, impressed by Aladar's compassionate ways, begins to have a relationship with him. Meanwhile, two Carnotaurus follow the herd's tracks and begin hunting them for food. Bruton and an Iguanodon Scout search for water, but are attacked by the Carnotaurs. Bruton escapes, but the Scout is devoured. Bruton warns Kron that they are being followed, sending the entire herd in a panicked flurry. Kron picks up the pace and evacuates the herd, leaving Aladar, the lemurs, the elderly dinosaurs and Bruton behind while the Carnotaurs are in pursuit some distance away.

During a storm, the group take shelter in a cave to spend the night. Later that night, the Carnotaurus enter the cave and attack the group after Baylene accidentally attracts their attention by moving a rock when Aladar attempted to move his friends away without any sound. Bruton intervenes and was able to fight the Carnotaurus off while Aladar and the others escape before he sacrifices himself by causing a cave-in, where he is crushed by debris along with one of the Carnotaurus. However, the other Carnotaurus survives and leaves where it resumes its hunt for the herd. Aladar and his friends venture deeper into the cave, but loses hope when they reach a dead end and Aladar mourns for the loss of Bruton. The others convince Aladar to keep going, relating how he inspired them to do the same. Together, they smash through the dead end and find the Nesting Grounds on the other side. While exploring, Eema finds a large wall of rocks blocking the original entrance to the valley.

Knowing that the herd will die attempting to climb over it, Aladar rushes off alone to save them, although he is pursued by the Carnotaurus unnoticed after he stumbled upon a Stygimoloch carcass. Aladar catches up with Kron, Neera and the herd as they were about to climb the wall and suggests a safer way to the valley, but Kron refuses to listen and gets jealous of Aladar becoming leader. The two end up battling each other and Aladar is injured in the fight, but before Kron can deliver a deadly strike, Neera stops her brother so that she saves Aladar's life. The herd decide to abandon Kron for his actions towards them and have Aladar as their new leader instead.

As they prepare to leave, Aladar, Neera and the herd are suddenly confronted as the Carnotaurus appears and intends to kill them all. However, Aladar rallies Neera and the herd to stand together, and they distract the predator by bellowing at it to get past. The Carnotaurus senses weaker prey and discovers Kron, where it pursues him to the top of a cliff while Aladar and Neera follow it. When Kron reaches a sheer drop that Aladar had warned him about, he tries to defend himself against the Carnotaurus, but the large theropod quickly outsmarts Kron and injures him. As it prepares to finish Kron off, Neera knocks the carnivore aside, but she is quickly overwhelmed. Aladar appears and battles the Carnotaurus, until the cliff it is standing on breaks apart beneath it, sending the theropod plummeting to its death into the ravine and onto the rocks below. Kron dies from heavy wounds while Neera and Aladar mourn for him.

Aladar leads the herd to the cave as a route to the Nesting Grounds where they find peace at last. Sometime later, a new breed of dinosaurs hatch among them are Aladar and Neera's children. The lemurs find more of their kind and the group all begin a new life together in their new home.

Voice cast[edit]

  • D. B. Sweeney as Aladar, a young brave, determined and compassionate Iguanodon who is adopted by a family of lemurs, and helps the herd of dinosaurs migrate and survive. He is the adoptive son of Plio, the adoptive nephew of Zini, the adoptive grandson of Yar, and the adoptive brother of Suri.
  • Alfre Woodard as Plio, a lemur matriarch who cares for her family. She is the daughter of Yar, the older sister of Zini, the mother of Suri, and the adoptive mother of Aladar.
  • Ossie Davis as Yar, a lemur patriarch whose occasional gruff demeanor is just a front covering his more compassionate interior. He is the father of Plio and Zini, the grandfather of Suri and the adoptive grandfather of Aladar.
  • Max Casella as Zini, Aladar's best friend and wisecracking sidekick. He is the adoptive uncle of Aladar, the uncle of Suri, the younger brother of Plio and the son of Yar.
  • Hayden Panettiere as Suri, Aladar's adoptive sister, Plio's daughter, Zini's niece and Yar's granddaughter.
  • Samuel E. Wright as Kron, a merciless, selfish and short-tempered Iguanodon, characterized by a strict adherence to social Darwinism. He serves as the leader of the dinosaur herd survivors, but Aladar replaces him.
  • Julianna Margulies as Neera, Kron's sister and Aladar's girlfriend.
  • Peter Siragusa as Bruton, Kron's lieutenant Iguanodon, who is harsh and sarcastic, but becomes repentant. After Kron abandons Bruton, he is rescued by Aladar.
  • Joan Plowright[2] as Baylene, an elderly, dainty and kindhearted Brachiosaurus, who is the last of her species.
  • Della Reese as Eema, a wizened, elderly and slow-moving Styracosaurus.

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

"The reason why I wanted to do was because it had this cosmic vision about evolution. That sounds a bit over the top but it would have been really good...There was a gigantic battle at the end as a comet moves closer and closer to Earth. The fight was between the sympathetic Styracosaurus and the antagonist Tyrannosaurus rex, and although the good guy wins, there's nothing to win any more because the comet hits Earth, and all the dinosaurs die. The lemurs survive because they are small enough to hibernate. The end of the film was the beginning of the human race."

Paul Verhoeven on the original idea[3]

The initial idea for the film began in 1986 during the filming of Robocop (1987) in which Phil Tippett recommended to director Paul Verhoeven that they should produce a "dinosaur picture". Verhoeven responded positively to the idea and suggested an approach inspired by Shane (1953) in which "you follow a lead character through a number of situations and moving from a devastated landscape into a promised land." Veteran screenwriter Walon Green was then brought to write the script. Verhoeven then drew two storyboards and calculated the project's preliminary budget to be $45 million. When the idea was pitched to then-Disney chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg, he suggested that the project should be budgeted at $25 million.[3]

In 1988, the project began development in Disney's live-action division in which Verhoeven and Tippett had originally planned to use stop motion animation techniques such as puppets, scale models, and miniatures.[4] The film's original main protagonist was a Styracosaurus named Woot and the main antagonist was originally a Tyrannosaurus rex named Grozni, with a small mammal named Suri as a supporting character. The film was originally going to be much darker and violent in tone, in a style akin to a nature documentary. After Woot defeats Grozni in a final fight, the film would end with the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event, which would ultimately result in the deaths of the main dinosaur characters. In 1990, producer/director Thomas G. Smith became involved in the film and briefly became the director following Verhoeven and Tippett's departure. Reflecting on his tenure, Smith described that "Jeanne Rosenberg was still writing the script, but it was in trouble. Disney wanted a cute story of dinosaurs talking, and I didn't like the idea. I thought it should be more like Jean Annaud's The Bear (1988). I wanted to have actual lemurs in it. They actually existed at the time of dinosaurs...We actually located a guy who trains them." However, Katzenberg called Smith to help on Honey, I Shrunk the Kids (1989) in which he was replaced by David W. Allen who had just finished directing Puppet Master II (1990).[3]

After multiple months on auditioning lemurs to portray Suri and creating visual development, Allen's version also fell into development hell. Smith stated, "The thing that ultimately killed it is that Disney knew that Jurassic Park (1993) was coming along pretty well, and they knew it was being done digitally. They figured, 'Well, maybe, we should wait until we can do it digitally.'"[3] In late 1994, Walt Disney Feature Animation began development on the project and they began shooting various tests, placing computer-generated characters in miniature model backdrops with the earlier proof of concept animation test completed in March 1996.[5] Ultimately, the filmmakers decided to take the unprecedented route of combining live-action scenery with computer-generated character animation.[6][7]

George Scribner served as the director, and he was later teamed up with Ralph Zondag as co-director.[8] Storyboard artist Floyd Norman stated Scribner envisioned the film to be "to be more than just a struggle for survival. He wanted this dinosaur movie to have elements of fun and humor...Our director wanted to explore the fun elements of dinosaurs, such as their size, shape and texture. George also knew that since dinosaurs come in all sizes, and what wacky relationships might I come up with? What funny situations might plague a critter of such massive size?"[9] Scribner left the project to work at Walt Disney Imagineering, in which Eric Leighton was brought to direct.[8] The new script had an Iguanodon named Noah as the protagonist with a lemur companion named Adam, and a group of Carnotaurus as well as a rival Iguanodon named Cain playing the antagonists. The story dealt with Noah, who had the ability to see visions of the future, foreseeing the coming of an asteroid and struggling to guide a herd of other dinosaurs to safety. Further into production, Noah, Cain and Adam were renamed Aladar, Kron and Zini, and certain aspects of the story were altered further into what was later seen in the final product.

Animation[edit]

On April 17, 1996, the Walt Disney Company announced they had acquired the visual effects studio, Dream Quest Images.[10] The studio was merged with the Feature Animation department's Computer Graphics Unit in order to form The Secret Lab.[11] Vision Crew Unlimited provided the live-action visual effects.[12]

To ensure realistic CG animation, 3D workbooks were created using Softimage 3D software. 48 animators worked on the film, using 300 computer processors to animate the film. Having aspired to be a paleontologist, David Krentz supervised the character design and visual development teams.[7] With an orthographic view of the dinosaurs, his character designs were drawn on paper and were scanned into the PowerAnimator software for the modelers to rig in the computers.[12] In the character animation department, the dinosaur characters were first visualized into the computer in skeletal form. The rough character animation were then transferred into three software programs to strengthen the visuals of the characters. The programs were "Fur Tool", in which was used for the lemurs and to create feathers and grass; "Body Builder" which was used to create skin and muscles for the dinosaur; and "Mug Shot", a shape blender that works within Alias Maya for facial animation and lip synch.[12]

Headed by David Womersley, live-action photography units shot on actual jungle, beach, and desert locations including California, Florida, Hawaii, Australia, Jordan, Venezuela, and Western Samoa.[4] In total, two live-action film crews shot over 800,000 feet of film, although one scene, which takes place inside a cave, utilized a computer-generated background. In order to approximate the dinosaur's perspective, visual effects supervisor Neil Krepela invented the "Dino-cam", in which a camera was rigged on a cable suspended between two 72-foot-tall towers. The computer-controlled camera allowed for panning and tilting on 360 degrees and move up to 30 miles per hour across a span of 1,000 feet.[4] With the live-action elements shot and the character animation reaching completion, the footage was moved into the Scene Finaling department. Under Jim Hillin, the effects compositing team blended 80–90 percent of the live action plates against the computer-animated characters. The lighting department then adjusted the final lighting of the shot by changing the lighting conditions and replacing the skies.[12][7]

Music[edit]

Dinosaur: An Original Walt Disney Records Soundtrack
Film score by
ReleasedMay 5, 2000 (2000-05-05)
Recorded2000
GenreFilm score
Length49:39
LabelWalt Disney
ProducerJames Newton Howard
Walt Disney Animation Studios chronology
Fantasia 2000
(2000)
Dinosaur: An Original Walt Disney Records Soundtrack
(2000)
The Emperor's New Groove
(2000)

The film's score was composed by James Newton Howard with vocals by Lebo M, who did vocals for The Lion King. In September 1999, it was reported that pop singer/songwriter Kate Bush had wrote and recorded a song for the film to be used in the scene in which Aladar and his family mourn the destruction of their island.[13] Reportedly, the song did not respond well to preview audiences in which the producers recommended that she rewrite the song, but Bush refused.[14][15] Ultimately, due to complications, the track was not included on the soundtrack.

In Asia, pop singer Jacky Cheung's song "Something Only Love Can Do", with versions sung in English, Mandarin Chinese, and Cantonese, was adopted as the theme song for the film. The Countdown to Extinction attraction at Disney's Animal Kingdom theme park was renamed and re-themed to the film now known as Dinosaur. The storyline was always intended to tie in with the film, considering the usage of a Carnotaurus as the ride's antagonist and Aladar as the Iguanodon that guests rescue from the meteor and take back into the present, seen wandering the Dino Institute in Security Camera footage seen on monitors in the attraction's unloading area.

The soundtrack album was released on May 5, 2000 by Walt Disney Records. Newton Howard would later compose the scores for the Disney animated features Atlantis: The Lost Empire and Treasure Planet. One track, "The Egg Travels", was heard in many trailers following the release of Dinosaur including Lilo and Stitch, Around the World in 80 Days and The Wild Thornberrys Movie.

No.TitleLength
1."Inner Sanctum/The Nesting Grounds"2:57
2."The Egg Travels"2:43
3."Aladar & Neera"3:28
4."The Courtship"4:12
5."The End of our Island"4:00
6."They're All Gone"2:08
7."Raptors/Stand Together"5:37
8."Across the Desert"2:24
9."Finding Water"4:13
10."The Cave"3:40
11."The Carnotaur Attack"3:52
12."Neera Rescues the Orphans"1:12
13."Breakout"2:43
14."It Comes With a Pool"3:01
15."Kron & Aladar Fight"2:58
16."Epilogue"2:32

Release[edit]

In conjunction during its theatrical release, the film was accompanied with an exclusive interactive dinosaur exhibit center adjacent to the El Capitan Theatre titled The Dinosaur Experience.[16]

Marketing[edit]

Disney advertised the film by creating a teaser trailer consisting entirely of the film's opening scene. The EmpireOnline project Your Guide To Disney's 50 Animated Features described this as a "smart move" because "taken by itself, the prelude to Dinosaur is an extraordinary achievement (still impressive now), showing a verdant and vibrant world teeming with darn convincing dinosaurs".[17] The teaser was attached to the theatrical release of Toy Story 2, and was also included on the home video release of Tarzan.[18]

Home media[edit]

Dinosaur was released on VHS and DVD on January 30, 2001. It was also released on 2-Disc Collector's Edition DVD that same day.[19] It was re-released on VHS in 2002. It released on high definition Blu-ray for an original widescreen presentation on September 19, 2006, becoming the first animated film to be released on the format. It was re-released on Blu-ray on February 8, 2011.

Video game[edit]

Disney Interactive released a tie-in video game on the Dreamcast, PlayStation, PC and Game Boy Color in 2000. To promote the release of Dinosaur, the Disney theme park ride "Countdown to Extinction" was renamed "DINOSAUR", and its plot, which had always prominently featured a Carnotaurus and an Iguanodon, was mildly altered so that the Iguanodon is specifically meant to be Aladar, the film's protagonist, and the plot of the ride is now about the riders traveling through time to a point just before the impact of the meteor which caused the extinction of the dinosaurs, to bring Aladar back to the present and save his life.

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

During its opening weekend, Dinosaur grossed $38.8 million in its first weekend from 3,257 theaters, for an average of $11,929 per theater beating out Gladiator and Battlefield Earth.[20] The film grossed $137.7 million in North America and $212.1 million overseas for a worldwide total of $348.8 million.[1]

Critical response[edit]

On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 65% based on 122 reviews with an average score of 6.2/10. The website's consensus reads: "While Dinosaur's plot is generic and dull, its stunning computer animation and detailed backgrounds are enough to make it worth a look."[21] On Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating to reviews, the film has a weighted average score of 56 out of 100, based on 32 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".[22] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale.[23]

Roger Ebert gave the film three stars out of four, praising the film's "amazing visuals" but criticizing the decision to make the animals talk, which he felt cancelled out the effort to make the film so realistic. Ebert wrote, "An enormous effort had been spent on making these dinosaurs seem real, and then an even greater effort was spent on undermining the illusion".[24] Todd McCarthy of Variety called it "an eye-popping visual spectacle", but later wrote "somewhere around half-way through, you begin to get used to the film's pictorial wondrousness — to take it for granted, even — and start to realize that the characters and story are exceedingly mundane, unsurprising and pre-programmed."[25] A.O. Scott, reviewing for The New York Times, praised the opening sequence as "a visual and sonic extravaganza that the rest of the movie never quite lives up to. Those scores of animators and technical advisers have conjured a teeming pre-human world, and the first minutes of the film present it in swooping, eye-filling panorama." Summarizing the review, he later wrote that "[t]he reason to see this movie is not to listen to the dinosaurs but to watch them move, to marvel at their graceful necks and clumsy limbs and notice how convincingly they emerge into sunlight or get wet."[26]

Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times wrote that the film "astonishes and disheartens as only the most elaborate, most ambitious Hollywood products can. A technical amazement that points computer-generated animation toward the brightest of futures, it's also cartoonish in the worst way, the prisoner of pedestrian plot points and childish, too-cute dialogue."[27] Mark Caro of the Chicago Tribune wrote "The action is easy enough to follow, and the screen is never dull. But for a story that takes place some 65 million years ago, Dinosaur is awfully reliant on recent recycled parts."[28]

Scientific accuracy[edit]

The lemurs depicted in the movie strongly resemble the sub-species Verreaux's sifaka. Biologists have raised concerns that the movie is misleading and could potentially confuse people, as it suggests lemurs (in their present evolved state) co-existed with dinosaurs over 66 million years ago. All modern strepsirrhines including lemurs are thought to have evolved from 'primitive' primates known as adapiforms during the Eocene (56 to 34 mya) or Paleocene (66 to 56 mya).[29][30][31]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dinosaur is considered to be the 39th animated feature film in the Walt Disney Animation Studios canon.[32] However, this ranking differs in Europe as Dinosaur, along with Winnie the Pooh (2011), are omitted from the canon with The Wild (2006) being included instead.[33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Dinosaur (2000)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 9, 2011.
  2. ^ Parks, Zack (28 September 2012). "Top 10 Actors Who Almost Voiced Disney Animated Characters". Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d Plesset, Ross (February 1999). "Phil Tippett: Dinosaur" (PDF). Cinefantastique. Vol. 31. pp. 43–5.
  4. ^ a b c Stack, Peter (May 14, 2000). "Digital Animation Evolves: Disney's 'Dinosaur' a giant step forward". San Francisco Examiner. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  5. ^ Supplemental Features – Computer Animation Tests
  6. ^ Hall, Wendy Jackson (June 1, 2000). "Disney Takes a BIG Departure from Formula with Dinosaur". Animation World Network. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c "Dinosaur: Production Notes". Cinema.com. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Tom Sito". Walt's People—Volume 9: Talking Disney with the Artists who Knew Him (Interview). Interviewed by Didier Ghez. 2010. p. 511–2.
  9. ^ Norman, Floyd (2013). "Digital Dinosaurs". Animated Life: A Lifetime of Tips, Tricks, and Stories from a Disney Legend. Routledge. pp. 114–5. ISBN 978-0240818054.
  10. ^ "Disney buys Dream Quest Images" (Press release). Burbank, California. United Press International. April 18, 1996. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  11. ^ Kilmer, David (October 29, 1999). "Disney Forms The Secret Lab". Animation World Network. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d Robertson, Barbara (May 2000). "BEAUTY... and the BEASTS". Computer Graphics World. 23 (5).
  13. ^ Twomey, Seán (September 23, 1999). "Kate records song for new Disney Movie – Dinosaur". Katebushnews.com. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  14. ^ Mendelssohn, John (2010). Waiting for Kate Bush. Bobcat Books. p. 270. ISBN 978-1846093395.
  15. ^ "Out Of The Storm". Kate Bush Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  16. ^ Matsumoto, Joe (May 27, 2000). "Dinosaurs May Be a Monster Hit Beyond the Box Office". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  17. ^ "Your Guide To Disney's 50 Animated Features: Dinosaur (2000)". EmpireOnline. 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
  18. ^ King, Susan (February 3, 2000). "Disney's 'Tarzan' Swings Onto DVD". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  19. ^ "Dinosaur: Collector's Edition DVD Review". DVDizzy. February 16, 2005. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  20. ^ Natale, Richard (May 22, 2000). "'Dinosaur' Gets a Colossal Jump on Summer". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  21. ^ "Dinosaur (2000)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 9, 2011.
  22. ^ "Dinosaur Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive.
  23. ^ "CinemaScore". CinemaScore.
  24. ^ Ebert, Roger (May 19, 2000). "Dinosaur". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved June 26, 2017 – via RogerEbert.com.
  25. ^ McCarthy, Todd (May 8, 2000). "Review: 'Dinosaur'". Variety. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
  26. ^ Scott, A.O. (May 19, 2000). "FILM REVIEW; Jurassic Lark: Rex Of the Cartoon Jungle". The New York Times. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  27. ^ Turan, Kenneth (May 19, 2000). "What Would He Say?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  28. ^ Caro, Mark (May 19, 2000). "'Dino' Doesn't Soar". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  29. ^ Kay, R. F.; Ross, C.; Williams, B. A. (1997). "Anthropoid Origins". Science. 275 (5301): 797–804. doi:10.1126/science.275.5301.797. PMID 9012340.
  30. ^ Gould, L.; Sauther, M.L., eds. (2006). Lemurs: Ecology and Adaptation. Springer. pp. vii–xiii. ISBN 978-0-387-34585-7.
  31. ^ Sussman, R.W. (2003). Primate Ecology and Social Structure. Pearson Custom Publishing. pp. 149–229. ISBN 978-0-536-74363-3.
  32. ^ "Disney's Official Animated Features list". Archived from the original on 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2009-06-17.
  33. ^ Disney DVDs & Blu-ray - DVD Collections

DVD media

  • Ralph Zondag (dir.), & Eric Leighton (dir.) (January 30, 2001). Dinosaur—Audio Commentary (DVD). Disc 1 of 2 (Collector's ed.). Burbank, CA: Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment.
  • Various cast and crew members (January 30, 2001). Dinosaur—Supplemental Features (DVD). Disc 2 of 2 (Collector's ed.). Burbank, CA: Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment.

External links[edit]