The dual fulfilment of prophecy (British English) or dual fulfillment (American English) or dual prophecy or duality in prophecy or present and future application is the mainly Christian idea that some prophecies in the Bible have both a short-term and long-term fulfillment.
Examples include the Immanuel prophecy in Isaiah 7:14, which is understood as referring in its first fulfillment to the birth, dated at the time of Isaiah, of a child who would be a sign to Ahaz of the impending destruction of Rezin and Pekah by Tiglath Pileser III, often with the associated interpretation that the child to be born is Ahaz' heir, Hezekiah and the maiden Abijah, daughter of Zechariah. The same reasoning is also extended to the Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace prophecy which occurs in another chapter (Isaiah 9:6).
In such examples messianic dual fulfillment is often related to concepts of messianic typology in the Old Testament.
Nebuchadnezzar II and Titus
Some commentators see a secondary fulfillment of the prophecies concerning the Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC) with the events of the Siege of Jerusalem (70).
AD 70 and the Last Days
Another area of perceived dual fulfillment is the overlapping fulfillment of short-term and long-term elements in the Olivet Prophecy. Events such as the siege of Jerusalem, Antiochus Epiphanes' sacrifice of a pig on the altar and the destruction of the Second Temple by Titus Flavius are seen by some Christians as only partial fulfillment of Matthew 24. The idea of dual fulfillment in this case is disputed by some Preterists.
- ^ Whittaker H. A. Isaiah Biblia, Cannock 1988
- ^ G. Lloyd Carr The Song of Solomon: An Introduction and Commentary 1984 "This is similar to the so-called 'dual fulfilment' of the Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The key to understanding the nature of typology is the doctrine of the unity of Scripture. The New Testament is the fulfilment and ..."
- ^ John Cumming Readings on the Prophets. Isaiah 1862, reprint 2009 Page 13 "But it had a second fulfilment, and a more complete one, at the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. " The whole stay of bread and the whole stay of water was taken away." Hear what Josephus says, - " Many there were indeed who sold what ..."
- ^ Edward Aloysius Pace The Catholic encyclopedia: a general work of reference 1936 "... who seized it and made it their stronghold shortly before Jerusalem was besieged by Titus, is the event foretold by Christ, but this view ... The words of Daniel seem to find a second fulfilment; Rome had taken the place of Syria. ..."
- ^ R. H. Herschell The Voice of Israel, 1845 Page 66 "... which thus becomes a type of the second fulfillment; as the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, which partly fulfilled our Lord's prediction, in Matt. xxiv. and became itself a typical prophecy of the last siege, at the end of the present ..."
- ^ G Warrand Houghton The expected rapture of the Church, or, The analogy of prophecy & ... 1884 "From this it would appear that the intention of the Spirit has been to provide for the dual fulfilment of the prophecy,
- ^ Jeff Kluttz The Return of The King: A Prophetic Timeline of End-Time Events 2009 - Page 154
- ^ J L Hendricks What on Earth Is God Up To? 2009 Page 45 "After Nero committed suicide, Vespasian was summonsed to Rome to become Emperor, and his son Titus was left to complete ... The Principle of Both Present and Future Application (Dual Fulfillment) The difficulty presented by the Lord's ..."
- ^ Dr F. Carl Gilkes Introduction to the Endtimes 2009 Page 44 " Most prophecies have dual fulfillment, however Preterists disagree because they say these events can only occur once.